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Flashcards in Chemistry text book pt 2 Deck (161):
1

The study of the chemistry of living systems

Biochemistry

2

The study of the structure, organization, and interaction of the substances within living matter

Biochemistry

3

Chemical processes in health and disease or as all the chemical processes that occur in living organisms

Biochemistry

4

Other names for biochemistry include

Physiological chemistry and biological chemistry

5

Derivatives of polyhydric alcohols containing an aldehyde or a ketone group

Carbohydrate

6

The result of the oxidation of polyhydroxy alcohols

Carbohydrates

7

As a class of compounds we often identify the carbohydrates with the

Sugars, starches, cellulose, and glycogen

8

Those carbohydrates containing an aldehyde functional group are called the

Aldoses

9

Those carbohydrates with a ketone functional group are called

Ketoses

10

Carbohydrates are often named using the suffix

-ose

11

Carbohydrates are composed of three elements. What are they?

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

12

The simplest of the carbohydrates are the simple sugars we call

Monosaccharides

13

The monosaccharides of greatest significance to the body are the

Hexose Monosaccharides

14

Hexose Monosaccharides are an excellent source of energy for the body, providing about

4 calories per gram

15

Each hexose monosaccharide have what molecular formula?

C6H12O6

16

The hexose monosaccharides include

Glucose
Fructose
Galactose

17

An aldose which has several alternate names, dextrose, grape sugar, and blood sugar

Glucose

18

Glucoses importance to the body is its presence in the

Blood

19

Another aldose important to the body because it is found in the make-up of the brain and nerve tissue

Galactose

20

Galactose is derived from

Lactose (Milk Sugar)

21

A ketose; the sweetest of the sugars, almost twice as sweet as table sugar

Fructose

22

Fructose is also known as

Levulose or fruit sugar

23

Fructose is found in

Many fruits

24

Carbohydrates containing two saccharide groups

Disaccharides

25

Disaccharides derived from the hexose monosaccharides will all have the molecular formula of

C12H22O11

26

A disaccharide is basically the equivalent of dehydrating between

2 monosaccharides

27

The disaccharides which contain hexose monosaccharides are

Sucrose
Maltose
Lactose

28

Table sugar or cane sugar is known as

Sucrose

29

Sucrose is formed from the dehydration between a molecule of

Glucose and fructose

30

Sucrose may be hydrolized to yield

Glucose and fructose

31

Malt sugar

Maltose

32

Maltose is formed by dehydrating between

Two glucose molecules

33

Maltose may be hydrolized to yield

Two molecules of glucose

34

Milk Sugar

Lactose

35

Lactose is formed by dehydrating between a molecule of

Glucose and galactose

36

Lactose may be hydrolized to yield

Glucose and galactose

37

Complex sugars that have many saccharide groups are called

Polysaccharides

38

Polysaccharides include the

Starches, cellulose, and glycogen

39

Polysaccharides may be hydrolized repeatedly to eventually yield

Monosaccharides

40

Can a monosaccharide be further hydrolized?

No

41

Starches occur in plants such as

Tubers and grains

42

The most important polysaccharides to humans are

Starches

43

The complete hydrolysis of starches yields

Monosaccharides

44

This occurs as a stored polysaccharide in the liver of man and other animals

Glycogen

45

How do our bodies store sugars for later use?

Glycogen

46

This occurs in the make up of many plants, not digestible by the human digestive tract

Cellulose

47

Cellulose serves only as this

A bulking agent (fiber)

48

The hydrolytic products of carbohydrates are ultimately the

Monosaccharides

49

The splitting apart by the addition of water is

Hydrolysis

50

Hydrolysis requires the addition of the appropriate

Enzyme

51

The oxidation of carbohydrates would ultimately yield

Carbon dioxide and water

52

This process is the body's chief source of energy

Oxidation of carbohydrates

53

The process by which plants convert carbon dioxide, water, and solar energy into carbohydrates and oxygen while in the presence of the catalyst, chlorophyll

Photosyntesis

54

What is the opposite of the oxidation of carbohydrates?

Photosynthesis

55

What is the opposite of photosynthesis?

Oxidation of carbohydrates

56

The anaerobic breakdown of organic compounds (carbohydrates) by microorganisms into simpler products, releasing carbon dioxide

Fermentation

57

The oxidative decomposition of complex substances (carbohydrates) through the action of enzymes, produces by microorganisms

Fermentation

58

Substances able to yield fatty acids when hydrolyzed

Lipids

59

These are made when alcohol combines with a fatty acid

Lipids

60

All lipids by have the same elements present as in a

Carbohydrate

61

All lipids must have the same elements present as in a carbohydrate, which are

Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

62

Lipids must have carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen present, but they may also have other elements present, which are

Nitrogen and Phosphorus

63

Lipids are generally insoluble in

Water

64

Lipids are soluble in organic solvents such as

Alcohols and ethers, acetone, benzene, chloroform, and/or carbon tetrachloride

65

An ester of fatty acids is a

Simple Lipid

66

Fats and oils are simple lipids which when hydrolized will yield

Fatty Acids and Glycerol

67

Glyceryl esters of fatty acids or esters of glycerol (glycerin) and fatty acids

Fats and Oils

68

Each molecule of a fat or an oil may be hydrolized to yield

A single glycerine and up to three fatty acids

69

Those in which the fatty acids are all the same are called

Smple Glycerides

70

Those containing more than one type of fatty acid are called

Mixed Glycerides

71

Those glycerides containing only one molecule of fatty acid are called

Monoglycerides

72

Those with two molecules of fatty acids are

Diglycerides

73

If the fatty acids are saturated then the glyceride is a

Fat

74

Fats are __________ at room temp

solid

75

If the fatty acids are unsaturated, then the glyceride is an

Oil

76

Oils are _________ at room temp

Liquid

77

Tristearin or Stearin is an example of a

Fat

78

A saturated fatty acid is

Palmitic acid

79

When in a glyceride, palmitic acid would be a

Fat

80

Fats are superior to carbohydrates as a source of energy in that they yield

9 calories per gram of fat

81

Fats serve to

Prevent dehydration of body cells
Insulate the body
Cushion body organs

82

The oxidation of a fat or an oil results in the end products

Carbon dioxide, water, and energy

83

When hydrolyzed a fat or oil results in the end products

Glycerol and fatty acids

84

The alkaline hydrolysis of a fat of an oil to produce a soap and glycerol

Saponification

85

When sodium hydroxide is used in Saponification, the end products are

Glycerine and lye soap

86

The result of saponification of fatty acids in the dead human body by alkaline substances in the water or the earth surrounding the grave

Adipocere aka Grave Wax

87

The substance besides glycerol produced when saponification of a fat/oil occurs

Soap

88

A mixture of two liquids which do not ordinarily mix, such as water and oil, to which you add a soap to cause them to mix

Emulsion

89

The process of creating an emulsion by adding a soap

Emulsification

90

In the digestive tract of the human body, this serves as an emulsifier to allow absorption of the fats in our diet

Bile

91

Lipids that are esters of fatty acids and high molecular weight alcohols other than glycerol

Waxes

92

The more common waxes are

Beeswax, lanolin, spermaceti, or carnauba wax

93

Lanolin and spermaceti are of great importance to the cosmetologist because they are used in

Creams, lotions, and cosmetics

94

One which when hydrolized will yield fatty acids, an alcohol, and some other compound

Mixed Lipid or a compound lipid

95

What are included in the category of mixed/compound lipids?

Phospholipids and glycolipids

96

Where are phospholipids and Glycolipids founds?

In the tissues of the brain

97

The greek word Proteios means

Of first Importance

98

Fundamental building blocks of many of the body's structures such as nervous tissue, muscles, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments

Protein compounds

99

Protein compounds can be formed in plant life by the addition of _________ from the soil to the carbohydrate compounds which were formed by photosynthesis

Nitrogen

100

A protein is actually a chain of

Amino acid molecules

101

How are amino acid molecules linked together?

Peptide Bonds

102

The alternating pattern of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom on the external bonds of a protein molecule

Peptide Bond

103

The smallest identifiable protein molecule is a single amino acid molecule called

Glycine

104

Protein is in a _______ state at body temp

Liquid

105

Protein is naturally

Hygroscopic

106

Protein utilizes this to maintain its liquid state

Imbibition

107

Proteins are considered to be the body's natural

Humectant

108

Proteins are essential in maintaining

Proper body moisture levels

109

Proteins consist of both acid and base parts, meaning they are

Amphoteric

110

When the peptide bonds of a protein molecules are removed, what is shed by the molecule?

Water

111

Coagulated protein is resistant to decomposition by

Hydrolysis

112

This can remove the peptide bonds from a protein molecule

Formaldehyde

113

Decomposition of a protein can occur in two ways. What are they?

Deamination and Decarboxylation

114

The removal of the amine from an amino acid by another substance

Deamination

115

The removal of the acid from an amino acid by another substance

Decarboxylation

116

Complex proteins can undergo

Partial Decomposition

117

Results in the separation of the single protein molecule into the specific number of amino acid molecules of which it was composed and held together by peptide bonds

Partial Decomposition

118

Complex proteins and amino acids can also undergo complete decomposition, resulting in the creation of

Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Urea

119

A compound which normally acts as a catalyst for some type of chemical reaction such as hydrolysis

An organic Enzyme

120

This will alter the rate of speed of the chemical reaction into which it is introduced but will not become part of the products of the reaction nor will it be altered by the chemical reaction

Catalyst

121

Enzymes are said to be

Substrate Specific

122

A specific enzyme will only act upon certain

Substances or substrates

123

If an enzyme is categorized as a member of the Protease family, it will only act on

Protein Substances

124

Proteins are __________ in nature

Crystalloidal

125

Enzymes are __________ in nature

Colloidal

126

Enzymes do not initiate the decompsition of substrates, but only _______ the natural hydrolytic action of water on food

Accelerate

127

Enzymes are known to be _________ and _________ specific

Temperature and pH

128

Enzymes are known to be labile. What does this mean?

Having the capability of regrouping and returning to the original strength after working on a substrate over aperiod of time

129

Because of this labile property, enzymes do not cease to act upon the

Death of the organism

130

It is essential that the exoenzymes and endoenzymes of the body be ____________ after death to minimize the damage caused by autolysis

Neutralized

131

Formaldehyde fluid has an affinity for

Nitrogen containing protein and protein derivatives like body enzymes

132

The most commonly used solvent for arterial fluids and cavity fluids

Water

133

The most commonly used vehicle of embalming fluid solutions

Water

134

The universal solvent

Water

135

The embalming process is described as the ___________, ________________, and _____________ of the dead human body

Disinfection, preservation, restoration

136

The killing or removal of all pathogenic organisms from a substance

Disinfection

137

The temporary halting of the natural decomposition processes which occur in a body after death

Preservation

138

What are the two most common aldehyde compounds?

Formaldehyde and Glutaraldehyde

139

There are __ members of the alcohol compound family used in embalming fluids

3

140

What are the three members of the alcohol compound family used in embalming fluids?

Ethanol
Methanol
Secondary propanol

141

The most commonly used agents in the phenolic compound category are

Phenol and Cresol

142

Preservative agents will neutralize the unstable chemical ions created by the ________________________ of protein and amino acids during hydrolytic autolysis

Deamination
Decarboxylization

143

From the moment of somatic death to the beginning of the embalming process, the number of protein/amino acid molecules is

Increasing

144

The number of ions present in the dead human body at the time of embalming

Preservative Demand aka Formaldehyde Demand

145

The longer the period between death and embalming, the __________ the preservative demand

Higher

146

The number of molecules of a preservative injected into the body in excess of the preservative demand

Preservative Residual

147

Preservatives all inhibit the further decomposition of the body by creating a substance which is resistant to hydrolysis. What is this substance?

Protein coagulate

148

Preservatives will inactivate the __________ which are present in the body at the time of embalming

Enzymes

149

Preservatives all kill _________________ which are present in the body at the time of embalming

Microorganisms

150

Preservatives will all destroy the ______ of decomposition and prevent their further production

Odor

151

The odors of decomposition are actually ___________ of the decomposing body

Atomized Particles

152

Formaldehyde is created by the

Oxidation of methanol

153

An unstable compound much like Hydrogen peroxide in nature

Methylene Glycol

154

Hydrogen peroxide can easily disassociate into

Water and Nascent oxygen

155

Methylene glycol can disassociate or polymerize into

Water and formaldehyde gas

156

Methylene glycol will polymerze into

Paraformaldehyde particulate

157

This is known to be an effective anti-polymerization agent in embalming fluids

Methyl Alcohol

158

Formaldehyde based substances have an affinity for

Nitrogen Based substances

159

Lipid substances of the body do not contain

Nitrogen

160

The lipids are encased in fibers of protein which contain

Nitrogen

161

To avoid shell embalming, it is recommonded that the embalmer use

Low rate of flow and pressure; combination of continuous injection with intermittent drainage