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Flashcards in Chest Pain Deck (11)
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What are the 'Six Ps' that represent the common symptoms of ischaemic limbs?

- pain
- pallor
- paralysis
- parasthesia
- pulseless
- perishly cold


What are some common causes of chest pain?

- myocardial ischaemia
- angina (reversible myocardial ischaemia
- pleuretic pain
- trauma


What does myocardial ischaemia mean?

Insufficient oxygenated blood is flowing to the heart muscle because of an imbalance of supply and demand.


What is the most common cause of myocardial ischaemia?

narrowing of one or more coronary arteries due to atherosclerosis


What is angina?

- reversible myocardial ischaemia


How does angina typically present?

diffuse central chest pain, often radiating to the arms (usually the left) and also the neck, lower jaw and upper abdomen. It is usually described as a heavy pain or pressure.


What is a classic precipitating factor for angina?

- physical exertion as it increases oxygen demand.


What are some associated features of angina?

- dyspnoea
- nausea
- sweating


What is a myocardial infarction?

- prolonged angina pain (>20 minutes) suggest myocardial infarction where ischaemia is so severe that is can causes permanent heart muscle damage/necrosis.


What are some important risk factors for coronary artery disease?

- smoking
- high BP
- high cholesterol
- diabetes
- physical inactivity
- poor diet
- family history
( - age & gender)


What are some key differences between a myocardial infarction and an angina episode?

- time course
- context
- relieving factors (are there any?)
- severity