Flashcards in Sensory Disturbance Deck (24)
What is sensation?
sensation is the process by whuich stimuli are detected by specialised receptors in the skin, muscles or joints and transmitted to the brain via peripheral nervous system. Sensation is also an important part of the body's defense system.
What does the processing of stimuli allow the body to do?
It allows the body to maintain posture, react to pain and noxious stimuli, and use senses such as touch and hearing to provide information about the surrounding environment.
What are the three components needed to gather information about sensory disturbance?
1. What symptoms of sensory disturbance does the patient describe?
2. What is the pattern of the sensory disturbance?
3. What is the underlying cause of the sensory disturbance?
What types of sensory disturbance symptoms may a patient have?
Positive sensory symptoms or negative sensory symptoms.
What are positive sensory symptoms? Give examples
- heightened activity in sensory pathways
- examples: tingling, pins and needles, pricking, burning, tightness, band like sensation around their body, electric shock, pain (sharp/stabbing in nature)
- usually patients with positive symptoms do not have a deficit in sensation
What are negative sensory symptoms? Give examples
- loss of sensory function
- examples: numbness, coldness, loss of feeling in a particular distribution
- patients with negative symptoms often report sensory deficit.
What does HYPOAESTHESIA mean?
diminished ability to perceive pain, temperature or touch
What does ANAESTHESIA mean?
complete inability to perceive pain, temperature or touch
What does ANALGESIA mean?
complete insensitivity to pain
What does PARAESTHESIA mean?
abnormal sensation perceived without abnormal stimulus
What does HYPERAESTHESIA mean?
abnormal increase in sensitivity to a stimulus
What does DYSAESTHESIA mean?
all positive sensory changes, whether due to stimulus or not
What does HYPERALGESIA mean?
Heightened response to a noxious stimulus
What does ALLODYNIA mean?
normal stimulus felt as pain, for example, clothing brushing agaisnt body being felt as pain
What are some common patterns of sensory loss?
- A glove and stocking distribution due to peripheral neuropathy
- A dermatomal pattern due to a spinal cord or nerve root lesion
- An area supplied by a particular nerve
- A hemisensory loss, due to a lesion of the spinal cord, brain stem, thalamus or cortex.
What are some underlying causes of sensory disturbances pertaining to the CNS?
- cerebrovascular disease, MS, tumours
What are some underlying causes of sensory disturbances pertaining to the PNS?
- DB, alcohol excess, nerve entrapment syndromes
What questions would you ask about sensory disturbance regarding Site?
Where is the sensory disturbance? Does it affect one half of the body? A whole limb? part of the limb? Symmetric/Assymetric?
What questions would you ask about sensory disturbance regarding Quality?
Establish whether the patient had + or - sensory symptoms or a combination of the two
What questions would you ask about sensory disturbance regarding Severity?
Degree to which the sensory disturbance has affected ADLs.
What questions would you ask about sensory disturbance regarding Time Course?
Worse at night?
What questions would you ask about sensory disturbance regarding Context?
Did you notice anything start at the same time of the symptoms?
What questions would you ask about sensory disturbance regarding A/R factors?