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Flashcards in Cough Deck (26):
1

What is a cough?

a mechanical reflex that occurs when cough receptors are activated by a stimulus leading to deep inspiration. The glottis then closes and there is a msucle contraction against it, leading to a release of air from the lungs accompanied by a characteristic sound --> helps to clear the airways of secretions and foreign particles

2

What is the difference between acute and chronic coughs?

Acute --> up to 3 weeks
Chronic --> present for more than 8 weeks

3

What is acute cough commonly caused by?

- viral infections --> common cold, bronchitis or bacterial pneumonia

4

What is chronic cough commonly caused by?

- asthma,
- post-nasal drip
- gastro-oesophageal disease
etc.

5

What is the difference between a dry and a productive cough?

A productive cough is one that is accompanied by sputum.

6

What is sputum?

Material composed of phlegm or mucus that may also contain blood, pus or bacteria.

7

What is important to know about Sputum?

1. colour
2. volume
3. thickness
4. odour
5. blood? pus? etc.

8

What is haemoptysis?

A person coughing up blood, whether it is in sputum or not.

9

What are important cardinal features associated with cough?

- Quality (cough) and then of sputum
- Severity
- Time course
- Context
- R/A Factors
- Associated features

10

What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to Quality?

- barking/hacking/whooping etc.
- dry/productive

11

What are some considerations for a cough pertainig to severity?

- frequency
- effect of ADLs

12

What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to time course?

- onset
- duration
- changes over time

13

What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to context?

- what caused it?
- occupation

14

What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to relieving factors?

- treatments tried and effect

15

What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to aggravating factors/

- occupational?
- worse at night?

16

What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to associated features?

- dyspnoea
- wheeze
- fever
- haemoptysis
- smoking

17

What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to quality of sputum?

COLOUR chronic bronchitis
- yellow/green --> pulmonary infection/bronchiectasis
- red --> haemoptysis
- black --> smoke, coal dust
- frothy/white/pink --> pulmonary oedema

18

What are rigors?

Shakes...different to shivering

19

What are night sweats?

- You wake up in the middle of the night drenched.
- Characteristic of TB, malignancy or perhaps endocarditis

20

What are some causes of haemoptysis?

- bronchitis, inflammation of the bronchi
- lung cancer
- pneumonia
- pulmonary embolism
- TB

21

What is Haemotemesis?

Vommiting up blood

22

How do you differentiate between haemoptysis and haemotemesis?

Prodrome?
Sputum?
Colour of blood? (red and frothy for haemoptysis; darker for haemotemesis)

23

What are some key features of pneumonia?

Rust coloured sputum

24

What are some key features of Whooping cough?

- caused by borditella pertussis
- coughing repeatedly and then vommiting
- whoop on inspiration

25

What are some key features of croup?

- seal bark of a cough
- semi-obstruction of the lung due to inflammation of larynx
- use of accessory muscles

26

What is the difference between a wheeze and a stridor?

Wheeze --> LRT & expiration
Stridor --> URT & Inspiration