Flashcards in Cough Deck (26)
What is a cough?
a mechanical reflex that occurs when cough receptors are activated by a stimulus leading to deep inspiration. The glottis then closes and there is a msucle contraction against it, leading to a release of air from the lungs accompanied by a characteristic sound --> helps to clear the airways of secretions and foreign particles
What is the difference between acute and chronic coughs?
Acute --> up to 3 weeks
Chronic --> present for more than 8 weeks
What is acute cough commonly caused by?
- viral infections --> common cold, bronchitis or bacterial pneumonia
What is chronic cough commonly caused by?
- post-nasal drip
- gastro-oesophageal disease
What is the difference between a dry and a productive cough?
A productive cough is one that is accompanied by sputum.
What is sputum?
Material composed of phlegm or mucus that may also contain blood, pus or bacteria.
What is important to know about Sputum?
5. blood? pus? etc.
What is haemoptysis?
A person coughing up blood, whether it is in sputum or not.
What are important cardinal features associated with cough?
- Quality (cough) and then of sputum
- Time course
- R/A Factors
- Associated features
What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to Quality?
- barking/hacking/whooping etc.
What are some considerations for a cough pertainig to severity?
- effect of ADLs
What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to time course?
- changes over time
What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to context?
- what caused it?
What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to relieving factors?
- treatments tried and effect
What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to aggravating factors/
- worse at night?
What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to associated features?
What are some considerations for a cough pertaining to quality of sputum?
COLOUR chronic bronchitis
- yellow/green --> pulmonary infection/bronchiectasis
- red --> haemoptysis
- black --> smoke, coal dust
- frothy/white/pink --> pulmonary oedema
What are rigors?
Shakes...different to shivering
What are night sweats?
- You wake up in the middle of the night drenched.
- Characteristic of TB, malignancy or perhaps endocarditis
What are some causes of haemoptysis?
- bronchitis, inflammation of the bronchi
- lung cancer
- pulmonary embolism
What is Haemotemesis?
Vommiting up blood
How do you differentiate between haemoptysis and haemotemesis?
Colour of blood? (red and frothy for haemoptysis; darker for haemotemesis)
What are some key features of pneumonia?
Rust coloured sputum
What are some key features of Whooping cough?
- caused by borditella pertussis
- coughing repeatedly and then vommiting
- whoop on inspiration
What are some key features of croup?
- seal bark of a cough
- semi-obstruction of the lung due to inflammation of larynx
- use of accessory muscles