Flashcards in Dysphagia Deck (15)
What is dysphagia?
It is when a patient has difficulty with swallowing. Specifically referring to the sensation of having food becoming stuck as it passes through the pharynx or oseophagus.
What is odynophagia?
It is when there is pain on swallowing. It may occur with dysphagia.
What are the two main types of dysphagia?
1. Oropharyngeal dysphagia
2. Oesophageal dysphagia
What is Oropharyngeal dysphagia?
- difficulty with initiation of the swallowing process
What are some causes of Oropharyngeal dysphagia?
- diseases that affect the pharynx and upper oseophagus
--> stroke, parkinson's disease, MS
What would a patient with Oropharyngeal dysphagia report?
- food becomes stuck immediately upon swallowing and may feel it most in the cervical region.
What are some associated features of Oropharyngeal dysphagia?
- coughing or choking and nasal regurgitation
What is Oesophageal dysphagia?
- arises when the passage of food or liquid through the oesophagus to the stomach is hindered by a pathological process.
What would a patient with Oesophageal dysphagia report?
- symptoms after initiating a swallow and may localise the symptom to the retrosternal area.
What are the two categories of Oesophageal dysphagia?
--> categorised according to the underlying mechanism
1. Motility disorder
2. Mechanical disorder
With regard to Oesophageal dysphagia, explain motility disorders.
- the patient has difficulty swallowing both solids and liquids from onset
- usually caused by a motility (or neuromuscular) disorder such as achalasia (disease in which there is a loss of peristalsis in the distal oesophagus)
With regard to Oesophageal dysphagia explain mechanical disorders.
- the patient has difficulty swallowing solids only at the onset often due to mechanical obstruction such as cancer of the oesophagus
- diffulty with swallowing liquids can occur later in development of the obstruction
Which cardinal features is of particular importance for dysphagia? Why?
- rapid pregression over weeks to months raises the possibility of malignancy.
- long-standing and intermittent symptoms are more likely to be due to benign conditions such as oesophageal spasm.
What are some common conditions that may be associated with mechanical obstruction causing oesophageal dysphagia?
- lapband surgery --> overeating
- foreign bodies