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Flashcards in Childhood - History Deck (10)
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1

How else is childhood a social construct?

It differs over time as well as societies.

- modern Western idea of childhood is a relatively new 'invention'.

2

How does Aries (1960) describe the history of childhood?

In medieval Europe, the idea of childhood didn't exist;

- children weren't seen as having a different 'nature' from adults.

- work began at a young age.

- children were seen as 'mini adults' - having the same responsibilities, rights and duties.

3

What is an example of children being the same as adults in medieval Europe?

Law =

- children often faced the same severe punishments as adults.

4

What did Shorter (1975) say about the history of childhood?

High death rates encouraged indifference and neglect, especially towards infancy.

5

How does Aries describe the modern notion of childhood?

Began to emerge from the 13th Century =

- schools began to specialise only in the education of the young.

- the church seen children as fragile 'creatures of God' needing discipline and protection from evils.

- a growing distinction between children's and adult's clothing, setting children apart from adults.

6

According to Aries, what was the result of this notion of modern childhood?

a modern 'cult of childhood' =

- moved from a world that didn't see childhood as special, to the obsession of childhood.

7

How does Aries describe the 20th Century?

'the century of the child'.

8

What are the 7 reasons for the changes in the position of childhood?

1). Lower IMR and smaller families =

parents made a greater financial and emotional investment in the childhood they have.

2). Knowledge surrounding child's health =

theories stressed that children need protection.

3). Laws banning child labour =

1840s onwards, created a dependency on parents and separated children from adult work.

4). Compulsory schooling =

children dependent on family.

5). Child protection and welfare laws =

emphasised children's vulnerability and made their welfare a central concern.

6). Idea of children's rights =

e.g. Children Act (1989) sees parents having 'responsibilities' towards their children rather than 'rights'.

7). Laws about social behaviour =

minimum age for various things, such as sex and smoking.

9

What are the 4 major social/policy changes in the 20th Century to protect children?

1). 1880 = Compulsory schooling.

2). 1889 = Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act.

3). 1989 = Children's Act.

4). 1989 = UN Conventions on the Rights of the Child.

10

What was the underlying cause of the changes in the position of children?

Industrialisation =

- modern industry requires an educated workforce, so compulsory education is needed.

- higher standards resulted in low IMR.