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Flashcards in Demography - Births Deck (34)
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What does demography study?

Population, including factors affecting its size and growth.


What factors affect the population?

1). Births and immigration = increase the population.

2). Deaths and emigration = decrease the population.


What is natural change?

The number of births minus the number of deaths.

(deaths over births).


What is net migration?

The number of immigrating into a country minus the number emigrating from it.

(immigration over emigration).


How much has the UK's population grew by since 1901?

From 37m to 65m today.


What is the main cause in the growth of population in the UK?

Natural change rather than net migration.


What are the 2 measures of births?

1). The birth rate.

2). The total fertility rate.


What is the birth rate?

The number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year.


What is the trend in the birth rate?

- Declining.


What statistics support the long-term decline in the birth rate?

1900 = 29.

2014 = 12.2 (fallen more than 60%).


What fluctuations have there been in the birth rate?

3 'baby booms'?

- After the world wars = people missed their families.

- Then in the 1960s.


What else happened to the birth rate?

Fell in 70s, rose again in 80s and 90s, fell again until 2001.


What is the total fertility rate?

The average number of children a mother will have during her fertile years (15-44).


What is the trend of the total fertility rate?

- 1960s 'baby boom' =

average 2.95 children per women.

- 2001 =

declining to the lowest of 1.63.

- 2014 =

rising slightly to 1.83.


How does the total fertility rate affect family size?

The more children, the bigger the family.


What else affects family size?

Family size doesn't just depend on the number of children =

- e.g. divorce divides family into 2 smaller ones and reduces the chance of the woman having more children.


What are the 2 important trends in births?

1). More women are remaining childless.

2). Women are having children at a later age (ave. over 30).


What are the 4 causes in the declining birth rate?

1). Changes in the position of women.

2). Fall in infant mortality rate.

3). Children as an economic liability.

4). Child-centredness.


What were the major changes in women's position in the 20th Century?

1). Increased equal opportunities.

2). More women working.

3). Changes in attitudes to family life and women's role.

4). Easier access to divorce rate.

5). Access to abortion and contraception.


What did Sue Harper (2012) argue about the decline in birth rate?

Better-educated women have more options; it has led to women choosing a career, and delaying birth and marriage.


What is an example that supports Harper's claim?

2012 = 1/5 women aged 45 was childless; doubled since 25 years ago.


What is the infant mortality rate (IMR)?

Number of infants who die before their 1st birthday, per 1,000 babies born alive, per year.


What is the trend in the IMR?

Fallen in the last century.


What statistics are there for the fall in the IMR?

1900 = 154.

2016 = 4.


How has the fall in the IMR affected the birth rate?

It could cause a fall in the birth rate; if infants survive, parents will have fewer.


What is the reason for the fall in the IMR?

1). Improved housing; better sanitation =

people flushed toilets and drank clean water.

2). Better nutrition; including that of the mothers.

3). Better knowledge of hygeine, child welfare and health; often spread via women's magazines.

4). Fall in married women working =

improved theirs and their babies health.

5). Improved services for women; antenatal and postnatal clinics.


How were children an 'asset' for the family in the 19th century?

Children went out to work.


How are children an economic liability?

1). Laws banning child labour =

also raising the school leaving age meant they could no longer work, being dependent on their families.

2). Changing norms =

children expect the right for higher standards of living (more materials).


How has children becoming an economic liability affected the falling birth rate?

Parents are unable to afford to have a large family.


How has families being more child-centred resulted in smaller families.

As childhood is now socially constructed, families prefer 'quality' over 'quantity'; parents have fewer children and pay more attention to the ones they do have.