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Flashcards in Demography - Migration Deck (23)
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1

What is migration?

The movement of people =

- can be internal (within a country).

- can be international.

2

What is immigration?

Movements into a society (into a country).

3

What is emigration?

Moving out of a society (out a country).

4

What is net migration?

Difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants.

5

What part of the population does migration affect?

- Age.

- Size.

- Dependency ratio.

6

What was the trend of migration before the 1980s?

More emigrants than immigrants in the UK.

7

From 1900 - the 1940s, what was the largest immigrant groups in the UK?

Irish, European Jews and British decent from Canada and the USA.

- Very few immigrants were non-white.

8

Which point did non-white immigrants begin to enter the UK?

1950s - 70s.

- from the Carribean, Africa and South Asia.

9

In 2011, what percentage of the population were ethnic minority groups?

14%.

10

What has been a result of minority ethnic groups immigrating into the UK?

Greater family diversity, and a more diverse society.

11

What was the impact on non-white immigrants from 1962 - 1990?

Severe restrictions, despite immigration and nationality acts.

12

Where have most emigrants settled since 1900?

- USA.

- Canada.

- Australia.

- New Zealand.

- South Africa.

13

What has been the main reason for emigration?

The economy.

- 'Push'/'Pull' factors.

14

What are the 'push' factors for emigration?

Recession and unemployment in the UK.

15

What are the 'pull' factors for emigration?

Better pay and opportunities abroad.

16

What are some non-economical reasons for migration?

- Flee political or ethnic persecution (e.g. Holocaust).

17

What is the trend of the UK population?

Currently growing, partly a result of immigration.

18

What has happened to the net migration of the UK?

High - more immigrants than emigrants.

19

What statistics show more immigration than emigration in the UK?

In 2014 =

- Net migration = 260,000.

- Immigration = 583,000.

- Emigration = 323,000.

20

What is the ethnic differences between the UK immigrants in 2014?

- Non-EU = 47%.

- EU = 38%.

- British returning the UK = 14%.

21

Has how immigration impacted the birth rate?

- Births of British mothers = remain low.

- Births of non-British mothers = 25% of all births.

22

How has immigration impacted the average age of the population in the UK?

1). Directly =

- In 2011:

- Average age of UK passport holders = 41.

- Non-UK passport holders = 31.

- This has lowered the average age.

2). Indirectly =

- As immigrants are younger, they produce more babies (more fertile), so lower the average age.

23

What are the 3 effects immigration has had on the dependency ratio?

1). Immigrants are younger, so lower the dependency ratio.

2). But have more children, so increase dependency ratio.

3). Longer they stay, the closer they become to the national average fertility rate, lowering the ratio.