Flashcards in Childhood - Has The Position of Children Changed? Deck (44)
What are the 2 views of whether children's position has improved?
1). The 'march of progress' view.
2). The conflict view.
What does the differences in history and the future of childhood suggest about the improvement of childhood?
Whether these represent an improvement or not.
What doe the 'march of progress' believe about the position of childhood?
That it has been steadily improving - better than it ever has been =
- however, this paints a dark picture of the past.
Name the 'march of progress' sociologists?
What does the 'march of progress' view consist of?
1. 'Child-centred' family.
2. Toxic childhood.
What is the 'child-centred' family?
1). Higher living standards and smaller families =
parents are financially better off - by their 21st birthday, a child costs their parents over £227,000.
2). More babies survive =
1900 = 154 (IMR), now = 4.
3). No longer 'seen and not heard'.
4). Children are protected from harm and exploitation against child abuse and child labour.
Who discusses the 'toxic childhood'?
Does the 'toxic childhood' view oppose the 'march of progress' view?
What is meant by 'toxic childhood'?
- Rapid technological and cultural changes are damaging children's development in the past 25 years.
What is are examples of 'toxic childhood'?
- Junk food.
- Video games.
- Testing in education.
- Long hours worked by parents.
What is the result of children being exposed to this 'toxic' culture?
They are deprived of genuine childhood (e.g. traditional games, etc).
What expresses the concerns about child's health and well being?
UK Youth are at the top/near the top of =
- drug and alcohol abuse
- teenage pregnancies.
What did UNICEF (2013) rank the UK's children's well being?
21/ 25 in terms of countries.
What an evaluation of the 'toxic childhood' view?
Not everyone is affected by this trend =
children in higher social classes are less affected (e.g. bedroom culture).
Who are the conflict sociologists?
Marxists and feminists.
How does the conflict view oppose the 'march of progress' view?
They argue that the 'march of progress' view gives an idealised image =
- they ignore the inequalities among children and between children and adults.
What are the inequalities among children?
- Third World countries experience childhood differently, they have different opportunities.
- Gender differences.
- Ethnic differences.
- Class differences.
What percentage of low birth-weight babies are from developing countries?
Who shows gender differences among children?
1). Bonke (1999) =
girls do more domestic labour, especially in lone-parent families.
Whose study show ethnic differences among children?
1). Brannen (1994) =
found Asian parents are more likely than others to be strict towards their daughters.
What are the class differences among children?
1). Poor children are more likely to;
- die in infancy,
- do badly at school,
- 4x more likely to suffer ADHD and experience conduct disorders
- be placed in protection.
What is a limitation of these studies?
Still can't speak of children in 'general' as they all experience life chances differently in different societies.
What are the inequalities between children and adults?
1). Power =
but 'march of progress' say adults use it to pass laws to benefit and protect children.
How does Firestone (2013) oppose the 'march of progress' view about the inequalities of power between adults and children?
Care and protection are new forms of oppression =
- e.g. banning children from work isn't protecting them, but segregating the; making them subject to more adult control.
What are the different forms of control adults have over children, according to child liberationists?
1). Neglect and abuse.
2). Over children's space.
3). Over children's time.
4). Over children's bodies.
5). Over children's access to resources.
What statistics prove adult control through neglect and abuse?
1). In 2013 = 43,000 children were on child protection plans due to risk of harm (usually from parents).
2). Childline = receives 20,000 calls per year about sexual and physical abuse.
How do adults control children's space?
1). Surveillance over children in public spaces (shopping centres) and signs on shops restricting access.
What did Cunningham (2007) find about adult control over children's space?
'Home habitat' (area at which children can roam freely) =
- shrunk 1/9 of the size in was 25 years ago.
How does Katz (2004) show less adult control over children's space in developing countries?
In Sudanese villages, children were allowed to roam freely in and out of the village.