Childhood vaccinations Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Childhood vaccinations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Childhood vaccinations Deck (25):
1

B19 virus - give details of the virus..
virus
Transmission
Infectivity
Incubation

- Parovirus - slapped cheek syndrome
- incubation - 4-14 days
- droplets, mother to child
- asymptomatic
- infectivity - low (once have rash you are no longer infectious)

- miscarriage in pregnancy, hydrous, anaemia

2

Rubella - give details of the virus..
virus
Transmission
Infectivity
Incubation

Togavirus, RNA
Airborne - less contagious
14-21 days incubation
Infectivity 1 week before rash to 4 days after

3

Rotavirus - main clinical features

- Reovirus (RNA)
_ feacal oral tranmission
- Low infective dose

4

Diagnosis/treatment of rubella

- MMR vaccine
- Serology IgG/IgM (implications for pregnancy)
- PCR

5

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) name the main features

- pneumovirus
- bronchiolitis - under 1 yr olds (0-24 months); winter epidemics, incubation = 4-6 days
- diagnosis - PCR on secretions from nasopharyngeal aspirate
Treatment - O2, manage fever and fluid intake

6

What type of immunity is IgM associated with?

acute infection - used to check presence of virus NOW

7

What virus's cause a rash?

Parvovirus
Measles
Chicken pox
Rubella
Non-polioenterovirus
EBV (glandular fever)

8

Clinical features of chicken pox

- Fever, malaise, anorexia
- Rash - macular > papular > vesicular > pustular

9

What diseases are notifiable?

Acute meningitis
Acute Poliomyelitis
Measles
Mumps
Rubella
Small pox

10

What are the clinical features of rotavirus?

- D&V

11

How is rotavirus diagnosis, treated and prevented

- PCR
- Rehydration
- Live vaccine - given at 2-3 months

12

Parainfluenza/influenza - main features

4 types - 1 in winter, 3 in summer
- transmission - person to person, inhalation
- clinical features - crop, bronchiolitis, upper respiratory tract infection
- parafluenza - not treatable, influenza = treatable

13

Measles - give details of the virus..
virus
Transmission
Infectivity
Incubation

- Paramyxovirus
- RNA virus (enveloped)
- Person to person, droplets (VERY INFECTIOUS)
- 4 days before rash and 4 days after
- incubation = 7-18 days (10-12 days)
- Human disease (possible to eradicate)

14

Clinical Features of mumps

Prodrome - non specific ( fever, malaise etc)
24hrs - ear ache and swelling of ipsilateral parotid
24hrs-3 days - parotid enlargement with severe pain (bilateral/ipsilateral), pyrexia up to 40 degrees!
- resolution - after peak swelling - resolves and parotid glands return to normal size within a week

15

What are the clinical features of Metapneumovirus

paramyxovirus
- causes illness sillier to RSV
Diagnosis = PCR
Treatment = supportative

16

Diagnosis and treatment of chicken pox

- clinical diagnosis (rash) and PCR (check presence of virus)
- Serology - IgG - immunity (pregnant women esp!)
- Treatment only for symptomatic adults and immunocompromised children - acoclovir

17

Main features of mumps?

- Paramyxovirus
- direct contact, droplet spread
- infectivity - several days before parotid swelling
- incubation - 2-4weeks
MMR vaccine (but not very effective)

18

Name some complications of measles

Pneumonia (main cause of death in children)
Otitis media
Diarrhoea
Acute encephalitis
Most complications occur in children 20 year old adults

19

What are the clinical features of measles?

- Koplik spots (like tipping red paint over head)
- 3 C's - cough, coryza, conjunctivitis
- Fever/malaise

Fever + Rash + coryza/cough/conjunctivitis = Measles

20

Clinical features of Parovirus B19

- Peaks in spring
- rash illness 'slapped cheek'
- minor respiratory distress
-athralgia (pain in joints)

21

What type of immunity is IgG associated with?

Long term immunity - check if you have been exposed to virus previously

22

Name the 3 main enterovirus's

Coxsackie, entero, echovirus

- can cause meningitis!!
- usually mild and self limiting

23

Main clinical features of rubella

Non -specific rash
Congenital rubella syndrome - cataracts/eye defects, deafness, cardiac abnormalities
, MICROCEPHALAY (most susceptible in first 2 weeks of pregnancy)

24

Chicken pox - give details of the virus..
virus
Transmission
Infectivity
Incubation

- Varicella zoster virus (Herpes)
- DNA virus
- Respiratory spread/personal contact
- very infectious (2 days before rash until vesicles dry up) - 90% people = susceptible who come in contact
- Incubation - 14-15 days
- Human = only host

25

Adenovirus main features

- 10% childhood resp infections
- CONJUNCTIVITS, mild URTI, diarhoea
- Respiratory panal/eye swab PCR
- Treatment - none unless immunocompromised

Decks in Clinical Pathology Class (50):