Flashcards in Childhood vaccinations Deck (25):
B19 virus - give details of the virus..
- Parovirus - slapped cheek syndrome
- incubation - 4-14 days
- droplets, mother to child
- infectivity - low (once have rash you are no longer infectious)
- miscarriage in pregnancy, hydrous, anaemia
Rubella - give details of the virus..
Airborne - less contagious
14-21 days incubation
Infectivity 1 week before rash to 4 days after
Rotavirus - main clinical features
- Reovirus (RNA)
_ feacal oral tranmission
- Low infective dose
Diagnosis/treatment of rubella
- MMR vaccine
- Serology IgG/IgM (implications for pregnancy)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) name the main features
- bronchiolitis - under 1 yr olds (0-24 months); winter epidemics, incubation = 4-6 days
- diagnosis - PCR on secretions from nasopharyngeal aspirate
Treatment - O2, manage fever and fluid intake
What type of immunity is IgM associated with?
acute infection - used to check presence of virus NOW
What virus's cause a rash?
EBV (glandular fever)
Clinical features of chicken pox
- Fever, malaise, anorexia
- Rash - macular > papular > vesicular > pustular
What diseases are notifiable?
What are the clinical features of rotavirus?
How is rotavirus diagnosis, treated and prevented
- Live vaccine - given at 2-3 months
Parainfluenza/influenza - main features
4 types - 1 in winter, 3 in summer
- transmission - person to person, inhalation
- clinical features - crop, bronchiolitis, upper respiratory tract infection
- parafluenza - not treatable, influenza = treatable
Measles - give details of the virus..
- RNA virus (enveloped)
- Person to person, droplets (VERY INFECTIOUS)
- 4 days before rash and 4 days after
- incubation = 7-18 days (10-12 days)
- Human disease (possible to eradicate)
Clinical Features of mumps
Prodrome - non specific ( fever, malaise etc)
24hrs - ear ache and swelling of ipsilateral parotid
24hrs-3 days - parotid enlargement with severe pain (bilateral/ipsilateral), pyrexia up to 40 degrees!
- resolution - after peak swelling - resolves and parotid glands return to normal size within a week
What are the clinical features of Metapneumovirus
- causes illness sillier to RSV
Diagnosis = PCR
Treatment = supportative
Diagnosis and treatment of chicken pox
- clinical diagnosis (rash) and PCR (check presence of virus)
- Serology - IgG - immunity (pregnant women esp!)
- Treatment only for symptomatic adults and immunocompromised children - acoclovir
Main features of mumps?
- direct contact, droplet spread
- infectivity - several days before parotid swelling
- incubation - 2-4weeks
MMR vaccine (but not very effective)
Name some complications of measles
Pneumonia (main cause of death in children)
Most complications occur in children 20 year old adults
What are the clinical features of measles?
- Koplik spots (like tipping red paint over head)
- 3 C's - cough, coryza, conjunctivitis
Fever + Rash + coryza/cough/conjunctivitis = Measles
Clinical features of Parovirus B19
- Peaks in spring
- rash illness 'slapped cheek'
- minor respiratory distress
-athralgia (pain in joints)
What type of immunity is IgG associated with?
Long term immunity - check if you have been exposed to virus previously
Name the 3 main enterovirus's
Coxsackie, entero, echovirus
- can cause meningitis!!
- usually mild and self limiting
Main clinical features of rubella
Non -specific rash
Congenital rubella syndrome - cataracts/eye defects, deafness, cardiac abnormalities
, MICROCEPHALAY (most susceptible in first 2 weeks of pregnancy)
Chicken pox - give details of the virus..
- Varicella zoster virus (Herpes)
- DNA virus
- Respiratory spread/personal contact
- very infectious (2 days before rash until vesicles dry up) - 90% people = susceptible who come in contact
- Incubation - 14-15 days
- Human = only host