Upper Respiratory Tract Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (35):
1

What are the main normal flora of the URT?

- Strep viridans
- Commensal neisseria spp
- Anaerobes
- Diphtheroids

2

What respiratory pathogens that might be carried asymptomatically but can become problems

S Pneumonia
H influenza
Moraxella catarrhalis
S pyogenes

3

What is the main cause of the common cold?

Rhino virus - do not give antibiotics

4

What is rhinosinisitus?

facial pain, nasal blockage, reduced smell

5

What is the main cause of rhinosinisitis?

Post viral infection
(2nd bacteria = H influenzae, S pneu.

6

What can chronic rhinositius develop into?

Meningitis, osteomyelitis
Brain abcess

7

Whats the main cause for pharyngitis/tonsilitis?

VIRUSES
-RSV
-Influenza
-EBV
-HSV1
-Adenovirus

8

Bacterial cause of tonsillitis/pharygitis?

- S Pyrogenes
- N gonorrhoea (rare)

9

What can group A strep infections cause in young children?

Scarlet fever
Rheumatic fever
Glomerulonephritis

10

How do you treat group A strep infections?

Penecillin

11

What condition does EBV cause?

Glandular fever

12

What complication can arise from glandular fever?

Splenomegaly - avoid contact sports

13

What antibiotic should EBV suffers avoid and why?

Ampicillin 'mac-pap rash' (not allergy, just reaction)

14

What are the symptoms of glandular fever?

-fever
sore throat (peritonsillar access)

15

What is the bacterium that causes diphtheria?

C. diptheriae

16

What are the symptoms of diphtheria?

Non-specific

17

What complications does diphtheria cause?

Airway obstruction
Myocarditis
Neuropathy
lung infection (respiratory failure or pneumonia)

18

What condition is prominent in young children and marked by fever, irritability, 'hot potato' speech, stridor, hoarse voice

epiglottis (cheery red) - airway obstruction

19

What is the organism that causes epiglottis?

H influenzae type B prior to immunisation

After immunisation - respiratory bacteria and S areus

20

What is characterised by a hoarse husky voice, globes pharynges (lump in throat), fever, myalgia, dysphagia?

Laryngitis

21

What is the main cause of laryngitis? Any other causes?

Viral (sometimes bacterial)

Voice abuse, malignancy

22

What is the technical name for croup?

Laryngotracheobronchitis

23

What is the cause of croup?

Parainfluenza

24

What condition is mainly caused by bordetella pertussis?

Whooping cough
- NOTIFIABLE DISEASE

25

Name the 2 phases of whooping cough

Initial catarrhal phase - runny nose, fever, malaise

Whoop phase (week later) dry non productive cough, short bursts on exhalation then inspiratory gasp

26

What is the treatment for whooping cough?

Erythromycin

27

What is otitis external?

Infection of the outer ear

Out ear = skin/soft tissue but small space, therefore, prone to infection of skin

28

What are the signs of otitis external

erythema (redness), otorrhoea (discharge)

29

What is acute otitis external cause by?

S areus (skin) and pseudomonas (swimming)

30

What is chronic otitis external?

Irritation from drainage of perforated eardrum

31

What should you avoid taking with chronic otitis media?

Amino glycosides - resistance and sensitisation with repeated use. Also can cause deafness with perforated tympanic membranes

32

Why is otitis external malignant life threatening

Can invade deep areas i.e. temporal bone, skull, meninges, braim

33

What is the organisms that mainly causes otitis external malignant

pseudonomas aeruginosa

34

Is otitis media mainly caused by viral or bacterial infections? And what organisms?

VIRAL
H influenzae
M Catarharris
S pneumoniae

35

What is the first line of treatment for mastoiditis?

Co-amoxiclav

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