Flashcards in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (35):
What are the main normal flora of the URT?
- Strep viridans
- Commensal neisseria spp
What respiratory pathogens that might be carried asymptomatically but can become problems
What is the main cause of the common cold?
Rhino virus - do not give antibiotics
What is rhinosinisitus?
facial pain, nasal blockage, reduced smell
What is the main cause of rhinosinisitis?
Post viral infection
(2nd bacteria = H influenzae, S pneu.
What can chronic rhinositius develop into?
Whats the main cause for pharyngitis/tonsilitis?
Bacterial cause of tonsillitis/pharygitis?
- S Pyrogenes
- N gonorrhoea (rare)
What can group A strep infections cause in young children?
How do you treat group A strep infections?
What condition does EBV cause?
What complication can arise from glandular fever?
Splenomegaly - avoid contact sports
What antibiotic should EBV suffers avoid and why?
Ampicillin 'mac-pap rash' (not allergy, just reaction)
What are the symptoms of glandular fever?
sore throat (peritonsillar access)
What is the bacterium that causes diphtheria?
What are the symptoms of diphtheria?
What complications does diphtheria cause?
lung infection (respiratory failure or pneumonia)
What condition is prominent in young children and marked by fever, irritability, 'hot potato' speech, stridor, hoarse voice
epiglottis (cheery red) - airway obstruction
What is the organism that causes epiglottis?
H influenzae type B prior to immunisation
After immunisation - respiratory bacteria and S areus
What is characterised by a hoarse husky voice, globes pharynges (lump in throat), fever, myalgia, dysphagia?
What is the main cause of laryngitis? Any other causes?
Viral (sometimes bacterial)
Voice abuse, malignancy
What is the technical name for croup?
What is the cause of croup?
What condition is mainly caused by bordetella pertussis?
- NOTIFIABLE DISEASE
Name the 2 phases of whooping cough
Initial catarrhal phase - runny nose, fever, malaise
Whoop phase (week later) dry non productive cough, short bursts on exhalation then inspiratory gasp
What is the treatment for whooping cough?
What is otitis external?
Infection of the outer ear
Out ear = skin/soft tissue but small space, therefore, prone to infection of skin
What are the signs of otitis external
erythema (redness), otorrhoea (discharge)
What is acute otitis external cause by?
S areus (skin) and pseudomonas (swimming)
What is chronic otitis external?
Irritation from drainage of perforated eardrum
What should you avoid taking with chronic otitis media?
Amino glycosides - resistance and sensitisation with repeated use. Also can cause deafness with perforated tympanic membranes
Why is otitis external malignant life threatening
Can invade deep areas i.e. temporal bone, skull, meninges, braim
What is the organisms that mainly causes otitis external malignant
Is otitis media mainly caused by viral or bacterial infections? And what organisms?