Flashcards in Pathogenesis of HIV and major STIs Deck (49)
What is the difference between STI and STD?
Both transmitted through sexual contact
Disease = evidence of disease symptoms (infection could be asymptomatic!)
What are genital infectious disease?
Disease not necessarily acquired by sexual contact but act can precipitate it
Examples inc commensal vaginal flora/GI flora
What are the main bacteria associated with STIs?
T pallidum - syphillis
What does phthirus pubis cause?
What does sarcoptes scabiei cause?
What are the predominant sites of infection/disease?
Local e.g. T vaginalis, C trochomatis, HSV, HPV, N gonorrhoeae
Mixed - syphillis
Other sites - HIV, Hep B
Other than sexual contact i.e. M-F, oral, M-M, F-F; how else can STIs be spread?
Vertical transmission - mother to baby
What is the risk of infection/acquisition mainly related to?
Number of sexual partners (without barriers/contraception)
What type of bacteria is Neisseria gonorrhoea?
-Gram negative, -Diplococcus (looks like a pair of hairy balls) "clap"
What are the characteristics of N gonorrhoeae?
-Intracellular pathogen - pathocytosed and multiplies intracellularly
- Pili on surface - attaches to surface mucosal membranes (mainly cuboidal/columnar epithelium)
- Cell envelope
Where can gonorrhoea infect/effect?
Genital urethral tract
How does gonorrhoea present?
Majority of women = asymptomatic
What are the complications of gonorrhoea (local and distant)?
-Pelvic inflammatory disease
-Fitz-Hugh curtis syndrome (perihepititis)
-Disseminated gonococcal infection - causes arthritis, meningitis
What can N gonorrhoea cause in pregnancy?
-conjunctivitis (ophthalmia neonatorum - blindness if not treated!!)
How is gonorrhoea diagnosed?
-Nucleic acid amplification test e.g. PCR
What is the treatment for gonorrhoea?
Cephlasporins eg. cefixime (oral), ceftriaxone (IV)
What is the cause for non-gonococcal urethritis? (NGU)
What type of bacterium is chlamydia trachomatis? In what two forms does it exist?
Obligate intracellular pathogen
Extracellular infective - elementary body
Intracellular replicative - reticular body
What cells does chlamydia trachomatis target?
Females - cervix, upper genital tract
Males/females - urethra, rectum, conjunctiva
How does chlaymdia infection present?
Osten asymptomatic (females more)
Cervicitis - strawberry cervix
Dysuria/frequency (painful, burning pee!)
What are the complications of chlamydia?
-Pelvic inflammatory disease - cause of infertility
How is chlamydia diagnosed?
NAAT (i.e. PCR)
What is the treatment for chlamydia?
What is the main cause of genital warts?
HPV 6 and 11
(HP 16 and 18 = cervical cancer)
What is the treatment for genital warts?
Cervarix (16, 18)
Gardasil (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18)
What type of virus is the herpes simplex virus> Which one (type 1 or 2) causes genital herpes>
Double stranded DNA
Type 2 - genital hypes
What are the classical symptoms of genital herpes?
Vesicles/ulcers - shedding (Spread)
What is the treatment for genital herpes?
What is the complications of Herpes?