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Flashcards in Introduction to haematology Deck (34):
1

What is haemopoiesis?

Physiological developmental process giving rise to cellular components of blood

2

What is the first cell in haemopoiesis?

Haemopoietic stem cell

3

What are the 4 facts of haemopoietic stem cells?

Symmetric self renewal - increase stem cell pool, no generation of differentiated progeny

Asymmetric self renewal - maintenance of stem cell pool and generation of differentiated progeny

Lack of self renewal - increased generation of differentiated progeny, reduced stem cell population

Lack of self renewal - maintenance of stem cell pool RESTING STATE

4

What are the characteristics of haemopoietic cells that make them suited for their function/

Differentiation potential for all lineages
High proliferative potential
Long term activity throughout lifespan
Self renewing

5

What are the 2 broad lineages of haemopoiesis?

Myeloid - granulocytes, erythrocytes, platelets

Lymphoid - B lymph, T lymph, NK cells

6

When does haemopoiesis first start and where?

Day 27
AGM (aorta gonad mesonephros)

7

At day 40, haemopoiesis disappears at the AGM, why?

Migration of haemopoietic stem cells from AGM to foetal liver (which becomes site of haemopoiesis)

8

What is the lifespan of a erythrocyte?

120 days

9

What do the following terms mean?
Anaemia
Polycythaemia
Relative polycythaemia

-Reduced RBCs
-Increased RBCs
-Reduced plasma volume (therefore ratio of RBC:plasma increases)

10

What is the term meaning reduced number of neutrophils?

Neutropaenia

11

What is the term meaning increased neutrophils?

Neutrophilia

12

How long do neutrophils last in the bloodstream?

4-6 hours

13

What circumstances does eosinophilia occur?

-Parasitic infections
-Allergies

14

What condition could basophilia indicate?

Chronic myeloid leukaemia

15

What is the term meaning increased number of monocytes?

Monocytosis

16

What could increased number son monocytes in the blood indicate

Infection e.g. TB

17

What do Natural killer cells do?

Large granular cells (innate immunity) that recognise non-self cells

18

What are the function of B lymph?

Part of adaptive immune system, they rearrange immunoglobin genes to enable specific antibody production

19

What are the function of T cells?

T helper and Cytotoxic T cells

20

What does lymphocytosis mean?

Increased number of lymphocytes
e.g. atypical lymphocytes of glandular fever; chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

21

What does lymphopenia mean?

Reduced number of lymphocytes e.g. post bone marrow transplant

22

What does plasmacytosis mean?

Increased number of plasma cells e.g. infection, myeloma

23

What cells do platelets cells originate from?

Megakaryocyte

24

What are the 4 main subdivisions of haematology?

Coagulation
Malignant
Non-malignant
Transfusion

25

What information can you get from a FBC?

Hb conc
Red blood cell count
- Mean cell volume
- mean cell Hb
Platelet
White blood cell

26

What are the normal FBC ranges?

Hb (g/l)male = 135-180; F 115-160
WBD 4-11
Platelets - 150-400
MCV - 78-100
MCH - 27-32

27

What tis the information you receive from a coagulation screen?

Prothrombin time
Activation partial thromboplastin time
Thrombin time

28

When blood is extracted, how is it treated in the tube?

EDTA anticoagulant

29

What is meant by test sensitivity?

Degree to which tests picks up TRUE ABNORMALITIES (i.e. true negatives)

TP/(TP+FN)

30

What does test specificity tell us?

The proportion of normal test results correctly classified by a test

TN/(TN+FP)

31

What are the three main types of anaemia?

Microcytic (smaller), homochromic (paler)- (low MCV, MCH)

normocytic, norochromic
(normal MCV, MCH, but actual Hb is low)

Macrocytic
(greater MCV)

32

What can cause microcytic hypo chromic anaemia?

Iron deficiency*
Thalassaemia
Lead poisoning

33

What can cause normocytic, norochromic anaemia?

Acute blood loss
Renal disease
Bone marrow failure
Mixed deficiencies (folate, B12, iron)

34

What can cause macrocytic anaemia?

Megaloblastic (abnormality of division deficiency/proliferation in haemopoetic) - vit B12, folate deficiency

Non-megaloblastic - alcohol abuse, liver disease

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