Flashcards in CNS Infections Deck (16):
What is meningitis?
Infection of CSF
What are the clinical features of meningitis?
- Usually viral but can be bacterial
ACUTE fever, headache, neckstiffness, +/- rash, conscious (no focal neurological signs)
What is encephalitis?
Infection of brain tissue
What are the clinical features of encephalitis?
- Usually viral
ACUTE fever, headache, neck stiffness
- altered conscious level, focal neurological signs, seizures
What is a brain access?
Access in the brain (usually bacterial but can be parasitic)
What are the clinical features of a brain access?
+/- altered consciousness, focal neurological signs, insidious (gradual) fever, neck stiffness, headache
What routes can microorganisms invasion occur via?
- Direct spread from adjacent focus e.g. paranasal sinus, middle ear
- Blood borne spread e.g. septicaemia, septic emboli (endocarditis)
- Iatrogenic spread e.g. via lumbar puncture
What is pachymeningitis?
Spread of infection from skull
What is leptomeningitis?
Spread of infection from blood
What are the characteristics of CSF with bacterial infection?
-Increased cells in CSF (polymorphs)
What are the characteristics of CSF with fungal infection (e.g. cryptococcus)?
Increased number of cells (lymphocytes)
- Normal or reduced glucose
- Increased protein
What are the most important organisms in bacterial meningitis?
Neonates: E. Coli, listeria monocytogenes, Group B Strep (e.g. agalactiae), H influenzae
2-18yrs: Neisseria meningitides
Over 30yrs/immunocompromised: Strep Pneumoniae
What are the clinical complications of bacterial meningitis?
- Cerebral infarction
- Obstructive hydrocephalus
- Cerebral abscess
- Long term problems e.g. deafness, seizures,, delayed development
What are the CSF characteristics of TB meningitis infection?
Increased Lymphocyte cells
Subacute meningitis (mild inflammation)
What are the clinical features of TB meningitis? What is the treatment?
Thick gelatinous exudate
Non specific symptoms