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Clinical Pathology > CNS Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS Infections Deck (16):
1

What is meningitis?

Infection of CSF

2

What are the clinical features of meningitis?

- Usually viral but can be bacterial
ACUTE fever, headache, neckstiffness, +/- rash, conscious (no focal neurological signs)

3

What is encephalitis?

Infection of brain tissue

4

What are the clinical features of encephalitis?

- Usually viral
ACUTE fever, headache, neck stiffness
- altered conscious level, focal neurological signs, seizures

5

What is a brain access?

Access in the brain (usually bacterial but can be parasitic)

6

What are the clinical features of a brain access?

+/- altered consciousness, focal neurological signs, insidious (gradual) fever, neck stiffness, headache

7

What routes can microorganisms invasion occur via?

- Direct spread from adjacent focus e.g. paranasal sinus, middle ear
- Blood borne spread e.g. septicaemia, septic emboli (endocarditis)
- Iatrogenic spread e.g. via lumbar puncture

8

What is pachymeningitis?

Spread of infection from skull

9

What is leptomeningitis?

Spread of infection from blood

10

What are the characteristics of CSF with bacterial infection?

-Increased cells in CSF (polymorphs)
-Reduced/absent glucose
-Increased protein
-Opaque/turbid appearance

11

What are the characteristics of CSF with fungal infection (e.g. cryptococcus)?

Increased number of cells (lymphocytes)
- Normal or reduced glucose
- Increased protein

12

What are the most important organisms in bacterial meningitis?

Neonates: E. Coli, listeria monocytogenes, Group B Strep (e.g. agalactiae), H influenzae

2-18yrs: Neisseria meningitides

Over 30yrs/immunocompromised: Strep Pneumoniae

13

What are the clinical complications of bacterial meningitis?

- Cerebral infarction
- Obstructive hydrocephalus
- Cerebral abscess
- Epilepsy
- Long term problems e.g. deafness, seizures,, delayed development

14

What are the CSF characteristics of TB meningitis infection?

Increased Lymphocyte cells
Reduced glucose
Increased proteins
Subacute meningitis (mild inflammation)

15

What are the clinical features of TB meningitis? What is the treatment?

Thick gelatinous exudate
Non specific symptoms
Anti-TB chemotherapy

16

What are the main fungal infections that cause meningitis? What type of patients are suavely affected?

Immunocompromised patients
- Cryptococcus neoformins
- Candida albicans
- Aspergillus fumigatus

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