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Flashcards in CNS Infections Deck (16)
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What is meningitis?

Infection of CSF


What are the clinical features of meningitis?

- Usually viral but can be bacterial
ACUTE fever, headache, neckstiffness, +/- rash, conscious (no focal neurological signs)


What is encephalitis?

Infection of brain tissue


What are the clinical features of encephalitis?

- Usually viral
ACUTE fever, headache, neck stiffness
- altered conscious level, focal neurological signs, seizures


What is a brain access?

Access in the brain (usually bacterial but can be parasitic)


What are the clinical features of a brain access?

+/- altered consciousness, focal neurological signs, insidious (gradual) fever, neck stiffness, headache


What routes can microorganisms invasion occur via?

- Direct spread from adjacent focus e.g. paranasal sinus, middle ear
- Blood borne spread e.g. septicaemia, septic emboli (endocarditis)
- Iatrogenic spread e.g. via lumbar puncture


What is pachymeningitis?

Spread of infection from skull


What is leptomeningitis?

Spread of infection from blood


What are the characteristics of CSF with bacterial infection?

-Increased cells in CSF (polymorphs)
-Reduced/absent glucose
-Increased protein
-Opaque/turbid appearance


What are the characteristics of CSF with fungal infection (e.g. cryptococcus)?

Increased number of cells (lymphocytes)
- Normal or reduced glucose
- Increased protein


What are the most important organisms in bacterial meningitis?

Neonates: E. Coli, listeria monocytogenes, Group B Strep (e.g. agalactiae), H influenzae

2-18yrs: Neisseria meningitides

Over 30yrs/immunocompromised: Strep Pneumoniae


What are the clinical complications of bacterial meningitis?

- Cerebral infarction
- Obstructive hydrocephalus
- Cerebral abscess
- Epilepsy
- Long term problems e.g. deafness, seizures,, delayed development


What are the CSF characteristics of TB meningitis infection?

Increased Lymphocyte cells
Reduced glucose
Increased proteins
Subacute meningitis (mild inflammation)


What are the clinical features of TB meningitis? What is the treatment?

Thick gelatinous exudate
Non specific symptoms
Anti-TB chemotherapy


What are the main fungal infections that cause meningitis? What type of patients are suavely affected?

Immunocompromised patients
- Cryptococcus neoformins
- Candida albicans
- Aspergillus fumigatus

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