Antivirals Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Antivirals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antivirals Deck (22):
1

What are the two types of virus's?

DNA (chronic) and RNA (acute)

2

Name some acute viral infections

Influenza, measles, mumps, hep A

3

Name some chronic viral infections

Latent with/without recurrences
- Herpes simplex, cytomegalovris
- Persistent - HIV, Hep B, Hep C

4

Viruses consist of..

- RNA/DNA
-Protein (coat = structural; enzyme = non-structural)
- lipid envelope (some) (acquire from cell they invade)

5

Viruses can be described as

Obligate intracellular parasite - how to invade cell in order to survive and replicate

6

Virus replication cycle - name the key steps

1. Virus entry into body
2. virus attachment to cell
3. Viral entry into cell
4. Uncoating of virus
5. Early proteins produced (enzymes)
6. Replication
7. Late transcription/translation
8. Virus assembly
9 Virus release - lysis

7

What do most antivirals act on?

Viral polymerases by mimicking nucleotides (directly or terminate chain formation)

8

NRTIs?

Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

9

Name pyrimidine analogues (-vudine)

Thymidine - zidovudine
Cytosine - lamivudine

10

Name purine inhibitors (-vir)

Tenofovir
Abacavir

11

What affects both HIV and Hep B?

Lamivudine
Tenofovir

12

What are protease inhibitors? (-navir)

Prevent viral replication by binding to viral proteases, preventing viral cleavage of protein precursors needed for production of infectious viral participles.

13

What are the main classes of antiviral?

- Fusion inhibitors - prevents HIV fusion to CD4 (blocks Gp120)
- CCR5 antagonists - prevents HIV entry (prevents binding to CCR5)
- Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
- Non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
- Integrase inhibitor - blocks integrase - enzyme that inserts viral DNA into DNA of host cell
- protease inhibition - prevents HIV maturation

14

One of first drugs for HIV?

AZT - not used due to resistance development

15

Highly active antiretroviral therapy - what is it and why?

Used to prevent resistance - use of 2-3 different treatments to prevent resistance. Taken life long. Suppression >10years is usually achieved!

16

What is Aciclovir used for?

Herpes simplex and h zoster virus

17

What is Ganciclovir used for?

Cytomegalovirus

18

Osteltamivir (tamifliu) and zanamavir used for

influenza

19

Ribavirin?

Hep C

20

Interferons?

Hep C and B

21

What is an inhibitor of integrase?

Rottergavir

22

Name an inhibitor of CCR5

Maraviroz

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