Flashcards in Antivirals Deck (22):
What are the two types of virus's?
DNA (chronic) and RNA (acute)
Name some acute viral infections
Influenza, measles, mumps, hep A
Name some chronic viral infections
Latent with/without recurrences
- Herpes simplex, cytomegalovris
- Persistent - HIV, Hep B, Hep C
Viruses consist of..
-Protein (coat = structural; enzyme = non-structural)
- lipid envelope (some) (acquire from cell they invade)
Viruses can be described as
Obligate intracellular parasite - how to invade cell in order to survive and replicate
Virus replication cycle - name the key steps
1. Virus entry into body
2. virus attachment to cell
3. Viral entry into cell
4. Uncoating of virus
5. Early proteins produced (enzymes)
7. Late transcription/translation
8. Virus assembly
9 Virus release - lysis
What do most antivirals act on?
Viral polymerases by mimicking nucleotides (directly or terminate chain formation)
Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Name pyrimidine analogues (-vudine)
Thymidine - zidovudine
Cytosine - lamivudine
Name purine inhibitors (-vir)
What affects both HIV and Hep B?
What are protease inhibitors? (-navir)
Prevent viral replication by binding to viral proteases, preventing viral cleavage of protein precursors needed for production of infectious viral participles.
What are the main classes of antiviral?
- Fusion inhibitors - prevents HIV fusion to CD4 (blocks Gp120)
- CCR5 antagonists - prevents HIV entry (prevents binding to CCR5)
- Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
- Non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
- Integrase inhibitor - blocks integrase - enzyme that inserts viral DNA into DNA of host cell
- protease inhibition - prevents HIV maturation
One of first drugs for HIV?
AZT - not used due to resistance development
Highly active antiretroviral therapy - what is it and why?
Used to prevent resistance - use of 2-3 different treatments to prevent resistance. Taken life long. Suppression >10years is usually achieved!
What is Aciclovir used for?
Herpes simplex and h zoster virus
What is Ganciclovir used for?
Osteltamivir (tamifliu) and zanamavir used for
Hep C and B
What is an inhibitor of integrase?