Flashcards in Diseases of the Head and Neck Deck (26)
What is the most common type of carcinoma arising from the oral cavity? What does it look like?
-Squamous cell carcinoma
-Dark brown pigmented lesion
- arise anywhere in oral cavity
What are squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth attributed to?
Smoking and alcohol
HPV (16/18) - from oral/genital contact
What are the most common type of carcinoma arise from the larynx? Where do they mostly arise from
Squamous cell carcinoma
Supra glottis (above vocal cords)
How is squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx treated?
What are the main causes of squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx?
Alcohol and alcohol
HPV (types 6 and 11)
Diet (low antioxidants)
What is lichen planus?
Inflammatory condition - destruction of keratinocytes (probably autoimmune TNF/interferon gamma from T cells0
How does lichen planus present? Can it be malignant?
Oral - ulcerative, erosive lesions, desquamative gingivitis (red gums)
Skin - itchy, purple papule - plaques with Wickman striae
Small risk of malignant transformation
What are local cord nodule an d polyps? Whwere and who do they effect?
Benign reactive lesion (excision)
Occur mostly on true vocal cord
Most effects heavy smokers and singers 'singer nodule'
What are local cord nodules/polyps associated with ?
Increase effort too increase voice
What is the main cause of nasal polyps?
What is acute sinusitis usually proceeded by?
Dental infection - oral flora/non specific inflammatory reaction
What is the cause and consequence of chronic sinusitis?
Sinus drainage is blocked
Inflammatory oedema accumulates and empyema (pus formation)
Where does sinusitis usually take place? (i.e. which sinus)
What are the infective organisms associated with ACUTE otitis media?
Usually viral (upper resp tract infection)
What is chronic otitis media? What are the causative organisms?
Recurrent/persistent infection or failure of acute infection resolution
What are the complications of otitis media
Perforation of eardrum
Aural polyps, cholesteatoma
What condition is cholesteatoma associated with>?
Chronic otitis media
What is the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma?
-Chronic infection and perforated ear drum
- squamous cell epithelium grows into inner ear and proliferates
- cystic lesions, keratinised with cholesterol clefts
- inflammatory reaction which can RUPTURE
What are the complications of cholesteatoma?
- Erosion of ossicles, labyrinth and adjacent bone
- Hearing loss
What is otosclerosis?
Abnormal deposition of bone in middle ear (due to imbalance in bone reabsorption and bone deposition)
What are the complications of otosclerosis?
Anchoring of ossicles to oval window (usually bilateral)
Progressive hearing loss
What are the symptoms of labyrinthitis?
Infection/inflammation of inner ear
-Hearing and balance distrubances
What are the causative viral/bacterial organisms for labyrinthitis?
Bacteria - H influenzae, S pneumoniae, Staphylcoccal species
Virus - mumps, rubella, CMV
What cancers affect the a) external ear and b) ear canal.
a) basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell -
b) squamous cell carcinoma - not sun exsposure
What is a paraganglioma?
Tumour of middle ear, occurring in the paraganglia