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Clinical Pathology > Diseases of the Head and Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diseases of the Head and Neck Deck (26):
1

What is the most common type of carcinoma arising from the oral cavity? What does it look like?

-Squamous cell carcinoma

-Dark brown pigmented lesion

- arise anywhere in oral cavity

2

What are squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth attributed to?

Smoking and alcohol

HPV (16/18) - from oral/genital contact

Dietary factors

Genetic

3

What are the most common type of carcinoma arise from the larynx? Where do they mostly arise from

Squamous cell carcinoma

Supra glottis (above vocal cords)

4

How is squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx treated?

Layngectomy

5

What are the main causes of squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx?

Alcohol and alcohol

HPV (types 6 and 11)

Diet (low antioxidants)

Layngopharyneal reflux

6

What is lichen planus?

Inflammatory condition - destruction of keratinocytes (probably autoimmune TNF/interferon gamma from T cells0

7

How does lichen planus present? Can it be malignant?

Oral - ulcerative, erosive lesions, desquamative gingivitis (red gums)

Skin - itchy, purple papule - plaques with Wickman striae

Small risk of malignant transformation

8

What are local cord nodule an d polyps? Whwere and who do they effect?

Benign reactive lesion (excision)

Occur mostly on true vocal cord

Most effects heavy smokers and singers 'singer nodule'

9

What are local cord nodules/polyps associated with ?

Hoarse voice

Increase effort too increase voice

10

What is the main cause of nasal polyps?

Recurrent rhinitis

11

What is acute sinusitis usually proceeded by?

Rhinitis

Dental infection - oral flora/non specific inflammatory reaction

12

What is the cause and consequence of chronic sinusitis?

Sinus drainage is blocked

Inflammatory oedema accumulates and empyema (pus formation)

13

Where does sinusitis usually take place? (i.e. which sinus)

Frontal/ethmoid sinuses

14

What are the infective organisms associated with ACUTE otitis media?

Usually viral (upper resp tract infection)

Bacterial:
H influenzae
Moraxella caterhalis
S pneumoniae

15

What is chronic otitis media? What are the causative organisms?

Recurrent/persistent infection or failure of acute infection resolution

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Staph Aureus

16

What are the complications of otitis media

Perforation of eardrum
Aural polyps, cholesteatoma
Mastoiditis/abcess

17

What condition is cholesteatoma associated with>?

Chronic otitis media

18

What is the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma?

-Chronic infection and perforated ear drum
- squamous cell epithelium grows into inner ear and proliferates
- cystic lesions, keratinised with cholesterol clefts
- inflammatory reaction which can RUPTURE

19

What are the complications of cholesteatoma?

- Erosion of ossicles, labyrinth and adjacent bone

- Hearing loss

20

What is otosclerosis?

Abnormal deposition of bone in middle ear (due to imbalance in bone reabsorption and bone deposition)

21

What are the complications of otosclerosis?

Anchoring of ossicles to oval window (usually bilateral)

Progressive hearing loss

22

What are the symptoms of labyrinthitis?

Infection/inflammation of inner ear

-Hearing and balance distrubances

23

What are the causative viral/bacterial organisms for labyrinthitis?

Bacteria - H influenzae, S pneumoniae, Staphylcoccal species

Virus - mumps, rubella, CMV

24

What cancers affect the a) external ear and b) ear canal.

a) basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell -
SUN EXPOSURE

b) squamous cell carcinoma - not sun exsposure

25

What is a paraganglioma?

Tumour of middle ear, occurring in the paraganglia

26

What does a paraganglioma present with?

Dizziness, pulsatile tinnitus, hearing loss, bloody discharge

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