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Flashcards in Childhood viral infections Deck (74):
1

What six conditions are childhood viral infections which are notifiable to public health.

• Acute meningitis
• Acute poliomyelitis
• Measles
• Mumps
• Rubella
• Smallpox

2

Which antibody levels are high in acute infection

IgM

3

Which antibody levels are high in chronic infection

IgG

4

Which antibody is maternal

IgG

5

Which antibody is present in breast milk

IgA

6

what type of virus is measles

Paramyxovirus

7

How is measles transmitted

droplet spread- person to person.

8

What time periord is infectivity of measles.

from the start of the first symptoms (4 days) before rash to 4 days after disappearance of rash.

9

What time period is incubation of measles

– 7-18 days (average 10-12)

10

Clinical features of measles

Prodrome- – Fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, coryza and cough
Kopliks spots
fever
rash- head to trunk

11

Complications of measles

ottits media
Pnemoniae
Diarrhoea
acute encephalitis

12

How do you diagnose measles

• Leukopenia
• Oral fluid sample
• Serology

13

What is the treatment for measles

supportive and antibiotics.

14

Prevention methods for measles

Vaccine
1 year old and before pre school.

15

What is the medical name for chicken pox

Varicella zoster virus.

16

What are chicken pox transmitted

– Respiratory spread/personal
– Contact (face to face/15mins)

17

what is the incubation period for chickenpox

14-15 days

18

What is the infectivity period for measles

2 days before onset of rash until after vesicles dry up.

19

Clinical features of VZV

Fever, malaise, anorexia
Rash – centripetal- directed towards the centre.

20

Complications of VZV

– Pneumonitis (risk increased for smokers)
– Central nervous system (CNS) involvement
– Thrombocytopenic purpura
– Foetal varicella syndrome
– Congenital varicella

21

Diagnosis/Treatment of VZV

PCR –vesicle fluid/CSF
Can use swab.
Serology

22

Treatment of VZV

– Aciclovir oral, IV in severe disease or neonates.
– Chlorpheniramine can relieve itch

23

Prevention of VZV

Vaccine- 2 live doses
VZ Immunoglobulin (VZIG)

24

What type of virus is rubella

Toga, RNA virus.

25

How is rubella transmitted

Droplet spread – air-borne

26

What is the incubation period of rubella

14-21 days

27

What is the infectivity period of rubella

– One week before rash to 4 days after.

28

What ar the clinical features of rubella

• Prodrome – non-specific e.g. tiredness, fever, headache.
• Lymphadenopathy – post-auricular, sub occipital
• Rash- spreads from the face

29

Complications of rubella.

– Thrombocytopenia;
– Post-infectious encephalitis; arthritis.
– Mild self-limiting infection not too dangerous in immunosuppressed.

30

What syndrome occurs as a result of rubella in pregnancy

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)

31

Characteristics of Congenital rubella syndrome

– Cataracts and other eye defects
– Deafness
– Cardiac abnormalities
– Microcephaly
– Retardation of intra-uterine growth
– Inflammatory lesions of brain, liver, lungs and bone marrow.
more severe is contracted in early pregnancy.

32

Diagnosis of rubella

• Oral fluid testing – IgM/G (PCR if within 7 days of rash).
• Serology – IgM and IgG. Antibodies detectable from time of rash.

33

What treatment is there for rubella.

• No treatment available – immunoglobulin given to exposed pregnant women.

34

Prevention of rubella

vaccination

35

How are enteroviaral infections transmitted

faecal oral route

36

Clinical features of enteroviral infections

Hand, foot and mouth disease- vascular rash like chickenpox but it fades away unlike crusting in chickenpox.
fever- rash
meningitis
runny nose and fever.

37

childhood respiratory infections include:

• Respiratory Syncytial Virus
• Para influenza
• Influenza
• Adenovirus
• Metapneumovirus
• Rhinovirus

38

What age group is bronchiolitis common in

0-24 months

39

How do you diagnose bronchiolitis

– PCR on secretions from nasopharyngeal aspirate

40

Tretament for bronchiolitis

O2, manage fever and fluid intake.

41

What type of virus is metapnemovirus

Paramyxovirus

42

How do you diagnose metapnemovirus

PCR rom the nasopharynx

43

Treatment for metapnemovirus

supporative only

44

What are the common symptoms from infection by adenovirus

– Conjunctivitis
– Diarrhoea

45

How do we diagnose adenovirus infection

respiratory panel PCR.
Eye swab PCR
Serology possible

46

How many types of parainfluenza are their and what seasons are they present in

4 types 1-4
1 in winter
3 in summer

47

How is parainfluenza transmitted

from person to person

48

Treatment for parainfluenza

none

49

How to diagnose parainfluenza

Multiplexed PCR

50

What does rhiovirus most commonly cause

common cold

51

Which 2 pathogens are mostly likely to be present in children with diahorhea

Rotavirus
Norovirus

52

How is rotovirus transmitted

faecal oral route and sometimes respiratory

53

How long is the incubation time of rotovirus

1-2 days.

54

What are the clinical features of rotovirus

• Diarrhoea and vomiting
• 6/12 – 2 yrs
• Severe disease c. 6/12
• Increased mortality in poorer countries
• Seasonal variation

55

How do we diagnose rotovirus

PCR

56

What is the treatment for rotovirus

rehydration

57

What prevention methods are used in rotovirus

vaccine

58

How is norovirus contracted

Foodborne

59

How is norovirus transmitted

Person to person spread

60

How is norovirus diagnosed

PCR

61

How is nor virus treated

Rehyradtion

62

What type of virus is Mumps

paramyxoyridae

63

How are mumps transmitted

– direct contact
– droplet spread
– fomites

64

How long in incubation from mumps

2-4 weeks (mostly 16-18 days)

65

How long is infectivity from mumps

several days before parotid swelling (cheeks swell) to several days after.

66

How do we prevent mumps

vaccination

67

Clinical symptoms of mumps

Prodrome – nonspecific e.g. low-grade fever, anorexia, malaise, and headache
Next 24 hours – earache, tenderness over ipsilateral parotid
Next 2-3 days – gradually enlarging parotid with severe pain
Normally bilateral but can be unilateral in at least 25%.
Pyrexia up to 40°C.- lower fevers are bacterial.
After peak swelling, pain, fever and tenderness rapidly resolve, and the parotid gland returns to normal size within 1 week.

68

Most common symptom of mumps

swelling of the parotid

69

Rare clinical manifestations of mumps.

– Epididymo-orchitis
– Oophoritis
– Meningitis
– Encephalitis
– Renal function abnormalities (mild)
– Pancreatitis

70

Diagnosis of mumps

serology and PCR

71

Examples of neonatal viruses

VZV
Rubella
CMV
Toxoplasma
HSV
HBV – HBIG/vaccine for neonatal.
HIV – see BHIVA guidelines etc.


72

clinical features of CMV

growth retardation, deafness, blindness- Nonspecific symptoms without a rash.

73

ClinIcal features of toxoplamosis

chorioretinitis, hydrocephaly

74

Clinical features of HSV

congenital or perinatal. Severe neonatal disease – can cause encephalitis