Antivirals Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Antivirals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antivirals Deck (32):
1

What are the stages in the pathogenesis of HIV

1) HIV contracted
2)Primary infection
3)host immune system contains it
4) latent phase
5)overtime CD4 falls as does the immune function.
6)symptoms occur
7) Initially non- specific.

2

How is HIV contracted

mother to baby, sex or IV

3

Drug used for HIV

T3-3 Drugs in one.

4

What type of viruses cause acute infection.

RNA viruses

5

Examples of acute infections

Influenza, measles, mumps, hepatitis A virus.

6

What type of viruses cause chronic infection

DNA viruses

7

2 types of chronic viral infection.

Latent- come out under stress.
Persistent-replicate all the time and are found in blood- HIV, Hep B.

8

What does viruses consist of

nucleic acid- DNA or RNA
protein coat
lipid envelope derived from the cells they grow in.

9

why don't viruses which infect the GI tract have an envelope

to withstand the ph- envelope proteins would otherwise be destroyed.

10

which 2 gene types make up a virus

Structural- make virus
Non-structural- take over host machinery.

11

Mechanism of viral replication

1) virus attaches to a cell
2) cell entry
3) virus uncoating
4) early proteins produced.
5) Replication
6)Latent transcription and translation
7)virus assembly
virus release

12

Prime target of antivirals

Polymerases.

13

How does AZT (azidothymidine) work

mimics the binding blocks used for DNA and RNA synthesis.
changes OH group to NH3 on bases.

14

what type of antiviral is AZT

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase Inhibitor.

15

2 types of NRTI's

Pyrimidine analogues.- C an T
Purine analogues.- A and G.

16

Thymidine analogues

zidovudine

17

Cytosine analogue

Lamivudine

18

Adenine and Guanidine analogues

Abacavir
Tenofovir

19

NRTI's active against HBV

Lamivudine
Tenofovir

20

Examples of non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI's)

Efavirenz
Nevirapine.

21

How do NNRTI work

Bind to different parts of the polymerase and inhibit it.

22

Examples of protein inhibitors.

Atazanavir
Darunavir
Fospamprenavir
Lopinavir
Nelfinavir
Ritonavir*- now used to boost the level of other protein inhibitiors which are brokendown by liver enzymes.
Saquinavir
Aspartate protease

23

How does fusion inhibitors work and a example

block virus fusing with membrane- given IM
Enfuviritide

24

How do Intergrase inhibitors work

prevents virus incorporating in the host genome. Not toxic.

25

How do  Chemokine receptor antagonsits work

prevent s entry
HIV requires CC5 to enter the cell as it is a co- receptor.
Maraviroc (CCR-5)

26

What does HAART stand for

Highly active antiretroviral therapy

27

What does HAART consist of and what is it's function

– 2 NRTIs + NNRTI
– 2 NRTIs + boosted PI
Aims to switch of virus replication can cause liver toxicity.

28

what mutation arises due to resistance to Lamivudine

M184V

29

What mutation provides resistance to HIV.

CCR5 delta 32 - chnage in CCR5 means that HIV cannot bind

30

2 drugs which sure Hep C

Interferons and ribavirin

31

How long do interferons need to be given for

3-12 months.

32

Important antivirals

Aciclovir- HSV and VZC
Ganciclovir- CMV
Oseltamivir and Zanamavir- (neurainidase inhibitors)- flu
Ribavirin- Hep C and RSV
Interferons- Hep C and B.