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Flashcards in Introduction to haematology Deck (61):
1

define haematology

biology and pathology of the cells that normally circulate in the blood.

2

define haemopoeisis

physiological developmental process that gives rise to cellular components of blood.

3

key properties of a haemopoietic cell.

differentiation into all cell lineages
highly proliferative
self renewal

4

define symmetric self renewal

stem cell divides into 2 stem cells

5

define asymmetric self renewal

stem cell divides into 1 stem cell and 1 progenitor cell.

6

deine lack of self renewal

stem cell divided into 2 progenitor cells

7

define lack of renewal

maintain stem cell pool with no diffrentiation.

8

2 lineages of blood cells

myeloid
lymphoid

9

what types of cells does the myeloid lineage have

WBC, RBC, platelets.

10

what type of cells does the lymphoid lineage have.

B and T lymphocytes.

11

what is the difference between a multi potential and pluripotential stem cell.

multi potential stem cells can divide into any time of blood cell..
pluripotential stem cells- are dedicated to either the myeloid and lymphoid lineage but within tho can differentiate into any other cell.

12

where does haemopoiesis originate

morula- RBC in yolk sac

13

which region does haemopoiessis start and what day of foetal development

27 days- aorta-gonad mesonephros region.
35-40 days- expand rapidly and then disappear

14

Inside which organ does haemopoiesis start.

in the liver

15

what are the functions of a blood cell

oxygen transportation
coagulation
immune response to infection and abnormal cells.

16

what shape are RBC

donut, biconcave shape.

17

what is the life span of a RBC

120 days

18

what terms are used to describe reduced and increased RBC

reduce= anaemia
raised RBC=polycythaemia.

19

what is the function of WBC

immunity and host defence,

20

what are the 3 types of granulocytes

neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils.

21

what is the most common WBC

neutrophils

22

what is the lifespan of neutrophils

6-8 hrs.

23

what is increased and decreased neutrophil levels called

increased-neutrophillia.
decreased- neutropenia.

24

what do eosinophils react to

parasitic infections and alleges

25

what do neutrophils react to

bacterial infection and inflammation.

26

what is an increased level of basophils known as, and in which blood cancer does this occur in.

basophillia -Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

27

Function of monocytes

phagocytic and antigen presenting cells.

28

once monocytes reach tissue they are known as

macrophages or histiocytes.

29

what is increased number of monocytes known as, and in which condition does this happen

monocytosis.
TB

30

what are monocytes in the liver called

e.g. Kupffer cells in liver

31

what are monocytes in the skin called

e.g. Langerhans cells in skin

32

are killer cells part of the innate or adaptive immune system.

innate.

33

Are B lymphocytes humoral or cellular

humoral.

34

Are T lymphocytes humoral or cellular

cellular

35

what cells do T cells interact with

B cells. and macrophages

36

what is an increase and decreased number of lymphocytes called, and when do these conditions occur.

increased- lymphocytosis (glandular fever, chronic lymphatic leukaemia)
decreased-lymphopenia (post bone marrow transplant)

37

3 types of lymphocytes

B, T cells and natural killer cells.

38

what is an increased number of plasma cells known as, and when does this occur.

plasmacytosis- infections and myeloma.

39

where and what cell are platelets derived from

bone marrow megakaryocytes.

40

what important process are platelets involve in

clotting.

41

what is the normal platelet measure in the body

200 x109/litre

42

what is the normal RBC count in the body

10x109 per litre

43

what are the 3 important diagnostic tests for blood related problems

FBC, blood film, coagulation screen.

44

what is shown on a FBC

Hb concentration
Red cell parameters
MCV (mean cell volume)
MCH (mean cell Hb)
White cell count (WCC)
Platelet count (WCC)

45

What is the name of the biopsy taken when obtaining bone marrow transplant

trephine

46

why might test results vary.

– Technical failure
e.g. clotted sample, e.g. variation in reagents
– Normal
Intra-individual
– e.g. diurnal variation of cortisol levels
Inter-individual
– e.g platelet count
Abnormal- what is classed as normal.

47

define reference range

the set of values for a given test that incorporates 95% of the normal population

48

define sensitivity
TP/ (TP+FN)

defined as the proportion of abnormal results correctly classified by the test

49

define specificity
TN/ (TN+FP)

defined as the proportion of normal results correctly classified by the test

50

3 Classification of anaemia

microcytic hypochromic
normocytic hypochromic
macrocytic hypochromic

51

define microcytic hypchromic anaemia

small MCV and less pigment Hb low, MCH low

52

what causes microcytic hypchromic anaemia

iron deficiency
thalassaemia
anaemia of chronic disease
lead poisoning
sideroblastic anaemia.

53

what are the MCV and MCH to be classed as microcytic anaemina.

MCV

54

define normocytic normochromic anaemia

RBC normal in size, MCV/MCH norml, Hb is low

55

what causes normocytic normochromic anaemia
(don't have enough RBC)

haemolytic anaemias
anaemia of chronic disease
after acute blood loss
renal disease
mixed deficiencies
bone marrow failure (post chemotherapy, infiltration and carcinoma)

56

what are the MCV and MCH to be classed as normocytic normochromic anaemia

MCV 80-95 fl & MCH ≥ 27 pg

57

define macrocytic anaemia

RBC large, increased MCV

58

what is the communists cause of macrocytic anaemiaa

alcohol abuse.

59

what is the MCV to be classes as macrocytic anaemia

MCV >95 fl

60

what are the causes of macrocytic anaemias

Megaloblastic: Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency
Non-megaloblastic: alcohol, liver disease, myelodysplasia, aplastic anaemia etc

61

what do the cells look like on a film in iron deficiency anaemia

Small, pale red cells (low MCV and MCH),
Variable size & shape.
Pencil like cells.