urinary tract infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in urinary tract infections Deck (40):
1

define a upper urinary tract infection,

kidney till above the bladder

2

define a lower urinary tract infection.

bladder to the end of the urethra.

3

Is the bladder sterile or a non-sterile site.

sterile

4

Are the kidneys and ureters a sterol or non sterol site.

sterile

5

Is the urethra a sterile or non sterile site.

not sterile
perineal flora from the skin or bowel.

6

what flora does perineal flora consist of

skin flora- predominantly coagulase (negative staphylococci)
Lower GI tract flora- anaerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae), gram +ve cocci

7

Is cystitis a lower or upper tract infection.

lower urinary tract infection

8

symptoms does cystitis present with

dysuria- pain when passing urine
urinary frequency
urgency
supra pubic pain
polyuria, nocturia, haematuria.

9

is pyelonephritis a upper or lower urinary tract infection

upper urinary tract infection

10

symptoms of of pyelonephritis

loin, abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, rigours, nausea, committing, diarrhoea,

11

what 2 measures will be elevated in pyelonephritis

elevated CRP and WBC.

12

what age group does urethral syndrome typically effect

30-50 year olds

13

what are the causes of urethral syndrome

symptoms of a upper urinary tract infection without infection

hormonal imbalance
inflammation of Skene glands and the paraurethral glands.
foods
environmental chemicals (bubble batch, condoms, gel)
Hypersensitivity following urinary tract infection
traumatic sexual intercourse.

14

what criteria determines where there is significant bacteria

Kass

15

what does significant bacteria indicate

upper respiratory tract infection.

16

what number is class as significant bacteria

10 ^5 cfu(colony forming units)/mL

17

limitations of using a figure to determine whether a patient has or doesn't have significant bacteruria.

o Many symptomatic females have bacterial counts of

18

define asymptomatic bcteriuria

more than 10^5 cfu/ml, but no symptoms are present.

19

most common cause os asymptomatic bacteruria in elderly

catherisation.

20

define sterile pyuria

pus cells in urine (WBC).
no organism grown in culture.

21

what are the predisposing factors for developing a UTI

female
urinary stasis-pregnancy and prostatic hypertrophy.
Instrumentation
sexual intercourse
fistulae
congenital abnormalities- most commonly vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR)

22

3 most common sources of infection

perineum instrumentation
fistulae
haematogenus

23

which organism most commonly causes UTI's

E.coli

24

which is the second most common organ to cause UTI

staphylococcus saprophyticus

25

3 causes of sterile pyuria

inhibition of bacterial growth
fastidious (hard to grow) organisms
Urinary tract inflammation (stones)

26

prevention of bacteracemia form cauterisation.

antibiotic prophylaxis

27

what is the difference between the colonisation of bacteria do to catheter and infection

colonisation- bacteria present but no symptoms
infection- bacteria and symptoms are present.

28

what investigations are carried out when determining as UUTI or LURI

dipstick, blood test, microbiological and imaging.

29

what does a dipstick test

Blood, Protein, Nitrite, White blood cells (leucocyte esterase

30

dipstick testing not diagnostic for a patient using what form of equipment.

for a patient with indwelling urinary catheter.

31

what microbiological investigations are undertaken

URINE
• Mid-stream (MSU)
• Catheter urine (CSU)- from the bag.
• “Clean catch”- common in children.
• Supra-pubic aspirate (SPA)- invasive, needle into bladder, because they cannot wee due to swollen prostate.
BLOODS
pyelonephritis.

32

further investigations other than microbial investigations

– Renal tract ultrasound scan- congenital abnormalities, kidney stones.
– Specialised tests
• Isotope scans (DMSA, DTPA, MAG3), micturating cystourethrogram

33

what treatment is provided to treat urinary tract infections.

Antibiotics

34

what are the requirements of antibiotics used to treat a urinary tract infection.

present in urine
minimally toxic
effective
easily administered cheap

35

examples of commonly used antibiotics in UTI's

– Nitrofurantoin- typically used
– Pivmecillinam- new
– Trimethoprim- typically used
– Fosfomycin- new.

36

treatment for pyelonephritis

cefuroxime and ciprofloxacin
7-14 dyas

37

define cystitis

inflammation of the bladder

38

which groups of patients are treated for asymptomatic bacteurinia

pregnant
infant- prevent pyelonephritis and renal damage
prior to a urological procedure-• prevention of UTI/bacteraemia

39

what is used to determine what antibiotic is used to treat a patient

sensitivities.

40

when are further investigations carried out (nor just microbiology)

– Recurrent UTI
– Any UTI in male patient
– Any UTI in childhood
– Pyelonephritis