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Clinical Pathology > Immunisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunisation Deck (25):
1

Why do me immunise

prevent individual disease
herd immunity
eradicate the disease

2

what is herd immunity

indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not

3

what are the 2 types of goals vaccination programs aim for

strategic
programmatic

4

What are the non- specific defences of the the body

unbroken skin
mucous membrane of gut, lung
acid & enzymes of gut
non-specific metabolism / inactivation

5

What is passive immunity

short lived immunity
e.g.antibiotic passed from the mother to baby
VSV given to pregnant women if she hasn't had chickenpox

6

What is active immunity

long lived immunity
when exposed to antigens antibodies are made.

7

Is immune memory passive or active memory

active

8

what are the 4 types of antibodies

IgG, IgM, IgE, IgA.

9

Which antibody does the primary response cause a production of

IgM

10

What antibody does re-exposure to an antigen cause the production of

IgG

11

Which cells produce antibodies

B cells

12

Which vaccines are examples of live strains

MMR, BCG, Yellow fever, Varicella
Act like the natural infection

13

Which vaccines are examples of inactivated organisms

pertussis, typhoid, IPV

14

Which vaccines contain components of organisms

influenza, pneumococcal

15

Which vaccines have inactivated toxins

diphtheria, tetanus

16

Advanatges of live vaccines

• Single dose often sufficient to induce long-lasting immunity
• Strong immune response evoked
• Local and systemic immunity produced

17

disadvantage of live vaccine

• Potential to revert to virulence
• Contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients
• Interference by viruses or vaccines and passive antibody
• Poor stability
• Potential for contamination

18

Advantage of inactivated disease

• Stable
• Constituents clearly defined
• Unable to cause the infection

19

disadvantage of inactivated disease

• Need several doses
• Local reactions common
• Adjuvant needed
• keeps vaccine at injection site
• activates antigen presenting cells
• Shorter lasting immunity.

20

Reactions to vaccines

• Local - pain, swelling or redness at injection site; small nodules may form at injection site
• General - fever, irritability, malaise, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, loss of appetite

21

does the frequency of reaction increase or decrease with the number of reactions

Freq of reactions decreases with no of doses - ab produced in response to live vaccine neutralises the small amount of vaccine virus in subsequent vaccine dose

22

does the frequency of reaction increase or decrease with number of reactions

• Freq of reactions increases with no of doses - if ab levels are good from earlier vaccination, ab binds to the vaccine antigen in a subsequent dose leading to inflammatory response

23

Within how many hours is a reaction to a vaccine likely if it a inactivated forms

48 hrs

24

Within how many hours is a reaction to a vaccine likely if it activated forms

depends on the vaccine
MMR-
Measles-1st week
rubella- 2nd week
Mumps- 3-6th week

25

Which new vaccines are available on the NHS programme

• Varicella/ Zostavax- given to old
• Menveo ( Conjugated MENINGO ACYW135 )- given to YR 12,13 ad freshers
• Men B - baby
• Rotavirus- baby
• Fluenz- preschool children