Upper respiratory tract infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Upper respiratory tract infections Deck (60):
1

what are flora of upper respiratory tract infections.

Steptococcus viridans, commensal neisseria, diphtheroids, anaerobes

2

what respiratory pathogen may be carried asymptomatically

streptococcus pneumoniae, moraxella catarrhalis, haemophilus influenza, streptococcus pyognes.

3

names of pathogens which might involve transients colonisation post antibiotics

coliforms, pseudomonas, candida.

4

3 most common bacterial causes of upper respiratory tract infection.

haemophilius influenza
moraxella catarrhalis
streptococcus pnemoniae.

5

what are the viral causes of upper respiratory tract infections

adenovirus
Epstein Barr virus
Herpes simplex
Influenza and parainfluenza virus.
respiratory syncytical virus(RSV)
rhinovirus
enterovirus
coronaviruses
human metapneumovirus.

6

most common form of transmission of a upper respiratory tract infection

cough and sneezes
droplet spread.

7

most common causes of the common cold and its symptoms

rhinovirus,
nasal discharge, sneezing, sore throat.

8

clinical signs of rhinosinusitis

facial pain over sinus, reduction in smell, nasal blockage and sniffling.

9

bacterial and viral respiataory infections are most common in

children

10

most common causes of rhinosinusitus

• Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus milleri group, anaerobes, fungal

11

complications of chronic sinusitis

Osteomyelitis, meningitis, cerebral abscess

12

what are sinus washouts used for

treatment and diagnosis of rhino sinusitis.

13

most common causes of tonsillitis (bacterial and viral)

viral- RSV, influenza, adenovirus, EBV, HSV1.
Bacterial- streptococcus pyogenes

14

what is used to to diagnose tonsillitis

throat swabs and rapid antigen testing.

15

most common signs and symptoms of tonsillitis

sore throat, dysphagia, fever, headache, red tonsillar/uvular area, lymphadenopathy.

16

what aspect of the history is unusual up important for tonsillitis

sex history- • Chlamydia and gonorrhoea are causes of tonsillitis

17

complications of group A streptococcal infections

acute glomerulonephritis/ rheumatic fever/scarlet fever

18

diagnosis of group A streptococcal infections

throat swab or ASOT antibody test.

19

what age group commonly gets group A streptococcal infections

children

20

common symptoms of EBV

– Sorethroat, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly

21

complication of EBV

splenic rupture

22

common symptoms of diphtheria

malaise, fatigue fever and sore throat.

23

what term is used to describe the look of epiglottitis

cherry red.

24

what causes epiglottis

airway obstruction

25

treatment for group A streptococcal infections

penicillin

26

treatment for diptheria

• Erythromycin/ penicillin/antitoxin

27

clinical signs of epiglottis

fever, irratible, difficulty speaking and swallowing, drools and strider/hoarse voice

28

diagnosis of epiglottis

lateral neck x-ray- swollen epiglottis
blood culture

29

why mustn't you swab the throat of a patient who is suspected to have got epiglottis unless you have incubated them

airway can close up resulting in lack of breathing

30

treatment for epiglottis

maintain airway, cefotaxime

31

clinical signs of acute laryngitis

Hoarse/husky voice, globus pharyngeus (lump in throat), fever, myalgia, dysphagia, temperature.

32

is laryngitis bacterial or viral infection (most commonly)

viral

33

clinical signs of of acute laryngotracheobronchitis

• sharp stridulous voice
• Inflammation of larynx and trachea after infection of upper airways

34

pathogen that cause whooping cough

• Bordetella pertussis

35

diagnosis of whooping cough

pernasal swab and then PCR

36

what are the 2 phases of whooping cough

catarrhal phase- runny nose, fever, malaise
later-dry non productive cough which becomes whooping

37

treatment for whooping cough

supportive and erythromycin

38

complications of whooping cough

ottis media, pneumonaie, convulsion, subconjunctival haemorrhages

39

prevention of whooping cough

vaccination

40

define otitis externa•

Infection of the external auditory canal (EAC)

41

common signs of otitis externa

Pain, itch, swelling and erythema, otorrhoea

42

main 3 types of otitis extern

acute OE, chronic OE and malignant OE.

43

main organism which cause otitis externa acute

skin types – S. aureus (likely if pustular) and Pseudomonas spp.(esp. after swimming)- staphs and streps.

44

diagnosis of otitis externa acute

swab EAC (external auditory canal)

45

treatment of otitis externa acute

toilet with saline and/or alcohol and acetic acid. Wick insertion.
• Topical drops (these may contain antibiotics, antifungals and steroids)

46

most common pathogen causing otitis externa malignant

pseudomonas aeruginosa

47

treatment for malignant ottisis externa malignant

-6 weeks altogether e.g. with iv ceftazidime then ciprofloxacin po- antipseudomonal antibiotics.

48

what groups of people commonly get ottisis externa malignant

Elderly, diabetics, immunosuppressed

49

define ottitis media

• Middle ear inflammation. Fluid present in the middle ear.

50

clinical symptoms of otitis media

• Fever, pain, impaired hearing. Red bulging tympanic membrane

51

common causes of otitis media

• VIRAL. H influenzae, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis

52

what discharge occurs for ear during otitis externa malignant

pus

53

diagnosis of otitis media

pus from ear

54

treatment for otitis media

nothing
if really unwell- amoxicilin

55

define mastoiditis

• Inflammation of the mastoid air cells after middle ear infection

56

diagnosis of mastoiditis

bacterial samples
CT

57

common effect secondary to mastoiditis

acute osteomyelitis.

58

treatment for mastoiditis

treatment is co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin-clavulanate)- given over along period of time as it is a bone infection.

59

how do you make a diagnosis of a upper respiratory tract infection

• Culture- 24 hr result.
• Sensitivity testing
• Reference laboratory work (typing, toxin detection)
• Serology and antibody detection- IgG and IgM with glandular fever.

60

common antibiotics used to treat bacterial upper respiratory tract infections

• Penicillin and amoxicillin
• Erythromycin