Flashcards in CNS infections- bacterial meningitis. Deck (72):
are encephalitis and meningitis typically viral or bacterial
are brain abscesses typically viral or bacterial
through what 2 mechanisms can pathogens enter the brain and it's surroundings
blood bourne - cross the blood brain barrier or the blood- CSF barrier.
why do the levels of protein increase during bacterial and viral infections
Presence of dead cells result in higher levels of proteins
why do the levels of glucose decrease upon viral and bacterial infection
bacteria and viruses use glucose as a substrate for there energy so that they can function
what type of bacteria neisseria meningitides
gram negative diplococcic
what medium does neisseria meningitides require to grow
what is the natural habitat of neisseria meningitides in the body.
how does the neisseria meningitides survive in the body.
Modifies host inflammatory process to survive.
Capsule- protects against complement mediated bacteriolysis and phagocytosis
how is neisseria meningitides detected
what age group do neisseria meningitides affects
complications of neisseria meningitides infection.
• Fulminant (suddenly occurring) septicaemia
• Septicaemia with purpuric rash
• Septicaemia with meningitis
• Pyogenic (purulent) meningitis with no rash
• Chronic meningococcal bacteraemia with arthralgia
• Focal sepsis
• Conjunctivitis, endophthalmitis
• Non-blanching rash
treatment for neisseria meningitides infection.
antibiotics -Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, Penicillin
prevention of neisseria meningitides infection.
Active against Group A and C and W135, Group B
what medium does haemophilius influenza require to grow.
what type of bacteria is haemophilius influenza
Small, pleopmorphic Gram negative cocco-bacilli or bacilli
how many antigenic types of haemophilius influenza are there
which antigenic type of haemophilius influenza in the most invasive
Which organisms typically carry and host haemophilius influenza
haemophilius influenza is found were commonly in the body
upper respiratory tract
treatment for haemophilius influenza
what chemoprophylaxis antibiotic is given to prevent invasive haemophilius influenza and neissera meningitidis
prevention of haemophilia influenza
H. Influenza Type B conjugates vaccines
what type of bacteria is streptococcus pneumonia
Gram positive cocci
what media is required for streptococcus pneumonia to grow
blood or serum
where is the normal habitat for streptococcus pneumonia
how does transmission of streptococcus pneumonia occur
via droplet spread occur.
treatment for streptococcus pneumonia
Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, Penicillin
is chemoprophylaxis offered for invasive streptococcus pneumonia infections
prevention of streptococcus pneumonia
Conjugate vaccine available against common serotypes
what groups of people are streptococcus pneumoniae infections common amongst
elderly and immunosuppressed
when are strides administered in meningitis infections
Must be given shortly before or with first dose of antibiotics
what is a commonly used steroid in meningitis.
dexamethasone (steroid), decreases the levels of what antibiotic in CSF
common pathogens which cause neonatal meningitis
• Group B beta haemolytic Streptococci
• Escherichia coli
• Listeria monocytogenes
bacteria Listeria monocytogenes is associated with what types of food
where do the pathogens which infect neonates arise from
pathogens in the birth canal- from the gut.
define in terms of days
early 5 days
what is the treatment for neonatal meningitis
• Ampicillin – against all streptococci
• Gentamicin- against E coli.
complications of meningitis
• Overwhelming sepsis
• Raised intracranial pressure
• Longer term problems
• Delayed development
what antibiotic can be used for all streptococci infections
what type of pathogen most commonly causes lymphocytic meningitis
Virus- enetrovirus and herpes simplex
what is the name of the bacteria which via a STI can cause meningitis
causes syphillitic meningitis
what bacteria can cause lyme disease
Is TB meningitis slow onset or fast onset
how is TB diagnosed
AFB (acid fast bacilli)
Ziehl Neelsen stain- alcohol and acid fast- if caused by Tb the stain doesn’t go when washed with alcohol.
Fluorescent antibody stain-easily see bacteria.
treatment for TB meningitis
12 months standard TB treatment and steroids.
where is toxoplasma gondii pathogen typically found
what types of brain infection does Toxoplasma gondii cause
what group of individuals does Toxoplasma gondii most commonly affect
what type of brain infection does Cryptococcus cause
In what chronic condition is cryptococcus meningitis a end stage complication
treatment for Cryptococcus meningitis
Amphotericin, flucytosine or fluconazole.
is Cryptococcus meningitis slow or fast onset
what is the most common cause of encephalitis
prevention for Japanese encephalitis
how is Japanese encephalitis transmitted form person to person
arbovirus transmitted by arthropod vectors
treatment for Japanese encephalitis
aciclovir and maybe steroids
The bites of which 3 animals cause rabies encephalitis
dog, fox or bat bite.
prevention of rabies encephalitis
what type of bacteria is clostridium tetani
Gram positive spore forming bacillus
what shape is the clostridium tetani
in what conditions does the clostridium tetani thrive
How is clostridium tetani most commonly obtained
wound which is contaminated with soil
pathogenesis of clostridium tetani
toxin spreads via bloodstream and retrograde tarnsport
binds to ganglioside receptors and blocks release of inhibitory interneurones
causes convulsive contraction of voluntary muscles
most common symptom of clostridium tetani
what parts of the body are most commonly affected by clostridium tetani muscle spasms
– Trismus- spams of the jaw
– Opisthotonus- hyperextension and spasticity in which an individual's head, neck and spinal column enter into a complete "bridging" or "arching" position.
spasm of jaw
hyperextension and spasticity in which an individual's head, neck and spinal column enter into a complete "bridging" or "arching" position.
treatment for clostridium tetani
Antitoxin (horse or human)
Penicillin or metronidazole
treatment for muscle spasm in clostridium tetani
o Muscle relaxants
o Respiratory support