CNS infections- bacterial meningitis. Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > CNS infections- bacterial meningitis. > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS infections- bacterial meningitis. Deck (72):
1

are encephalitis and meningitis typically viral or bacterial

viral

2

are brain abscesses typically viral or bacterial

bacterial

3

through what 2 mechanisms can pathogens enter the brain and it's surroundings

blood bourne - cross the blood brain barrier or the blood- CSF barrier.
peripheral nerves

4

why do the levels of protein increase during bacterial and viral infections

Presence of dead cells result in higher levels of proteins

5

why do the levels of glucose decrease upon viral and bacterial infection

bacteria and viruses use glucose as a substrate for there energy so that they can function

6

what type of bacteria neisseria meningitides

gram negative diplococcic

7

what medium does neisseria meningitides require to grow

blood

8

what is the natural habitat of neisseria meningitides in the body.

nasopharynx

9

how does the neisseria meningitides survive in the body.

Modifies host inflammatory process to survive.
Capsule- protects against complement mediated bacteriolysis and phagocytosis

10

how is neisseria meningitides detected

PCR

11

what age group do neisseria meningitides affects

Affects

12

complications of neisseria meningitides infection.

• Fulminant (suddenly occurring) septicaemia
• Septicaemia with purpuric rash
• Septicaemia with meningitis
• Pyogenic (purulent) meningitis with no rash
• Chronic meningococcal bacteraemia with arthralgia
• Focal sepsis
• Conjunctivitis, endophthalmitis
• Non-blanching rash

13

treatment for neisseria meningitides infection.

antibiotics -Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, Penicillin

14

prevention of neisseria meningitides infection.

vaccines
Active against Group A and C and W135, Group B

15

what medium does haemophilius influenza require to grow.

blood

16

what type of bacteria is haemophilius influenza

Small, pleopmorphic Gram negative cocco-bacilli or bacilli

17

how many antigenic types of haemophilius influenza are there

6 types.

18

which antigenic type of haemophilius influenza in the most invasive

type b

19

Which organisms typically carry and host haemophilius influenza

humans

20

haemophilius influenza is found were commonly in the body

upper respiratory tract

21

treatment for haemophilius influenza

Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime
Ampicillin

22

what chemoprophylaxis antibiotic is given to prevent invasive haemophilius influenza and neissera meningitidis

rifampicin

23

prevention of haemophilia influenza

H. Influenza Type B conjugates vaccines

24

what type of bacteria is streptococcus pneumonia

Gram positive cocci

25

what media is required for streptococcus pneumonia to grow

blood or serum

26

where is the normal habitat for streptococcus pneumonia

respiratory tract

27

how does transmission of streptococcus pneumonia occur

via droplet spread occur.

28

treatment for streptococcus pneumonia

Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, Penicillin

29

is chemoprophylaxis offered for invasive streptococcus pneumonia infections

no.

30

prevention of streptococcus pneumonia

Conjugate vaccine available against common serotypes

31

what groups of people are streptococcus pneumoniae infections common amongst

elderly and immunosuppressed

32

when are strides administered in meningitis infections

Must be given shortly before or with first dose of antibiotics

33

what is a commonly used steroid in meningitis.

Dexamethasone

34

dexamethasone (steroid), decreases the levels of what antibiotic in CSF

vancomycin

35

common pathogens which cause neonatal meningitis

• Group B beta haemolytic Streptococci
• Escherichia coli
• Listeria monocytogenes

36

bacteria Listeria monocytogenes is associated with what types of food

cheese, pate.

37

where do the pathogens which infect neonates arise from

pathogens in the birth canal- from the gut.

38

define in terms of days
early
intermediate
late
neonatal meningitis

early 5 days

39

what is the treatment for neonatal meningitis

• Cefotaxime
• Ampicillin – against all streptococci
• Gentamicin- against E coli.

40

complications of meningitis

• Death
• Overwhelming sepsis
• Raised intracranial pressure
• Longer term problems
• Deafness
• Delayed development
• Seizures
• Stroke
• Hydrocephalus

41

what antibiotic can be used for all streptococci infections

ampicillin

42

what type of pathogen most commonly causes lymphocytic meningitis

Virus- enetrovirus and herpes simplex

43

what is the name of the bacteria which via a STI can cause meningitis

spirochete
causes syphillitic meningitis

44

what bacteria can cause lyme disease

spirochete

45

Is TB meningitis slow onset or fast onset

slow

46

how is TB diagnosed

AFB (acid fast bacilli)
Ziehl Neelsen stain- alcohol and acid fast- if caused by Tb the stain doesn’t go when washed with alcohol.
Fluorescent antibody stain-easily see bacteria.

47

treatment for TB meningitis

12 months standard TB treatment and steroids.

48

where is toxoplasma gondii pathogen typically found

cat faeces

49

what types of brain infection does Toxoplasma gondii cause

encepahlitis

50

what group of individuals does Toxoplasma gondii most commonly affect

immunocompromised

51

what type of brain infection does Cryptococcus cause

meningitis

52

In what chronic condition is cryptococcus meningitis a end stage complication

HIV

53

treatment for Cryptococcus meningitis

Amphotericin, flucytosine or fluconazole.

54

is Cryptococcus meningitis slow or fast onset

slow.

55

what is the most common cause of encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis

56

prevention for Japanese encephalitis

vaccine

57

how is Japanese encephalitis transmitted form person to person

arbovirus transmitted by arthropod vectors

58

treatment for Japanese encephalitis

aciclovir and maybe steroids

59

The bites of which 3 animals cause rabies encephalitis

dog, fox or bat bite.

60

prevention of rabies encephalitis

vaccine

61

what type of bacteria is clostridium tetani

Gram positive spore forming bacillus

62

what shape is the clostridium tetani

drumstick

63

in what conditions does the clostridium tetani thrive

anaerobic

64

How is clostridium tetani most commonly obtained

wound which is contaminated with soil

65

pathogenesis of clostridium tetani

toxin spreads via bloodstream and retrograde tarnsport
binds to ganglioside receptors and blocks release of inhibitory interneurones
causes convulsive contraction of voluntary muscles

66

most common symptom of clostridium tetani

muscle spasm

67

what parts of the body are most commonly affected by clostridium tetani muscle spasms

– Trismus- spams of the jaw
– Opisthotonus- hyperextension and spasticity in which an individual's head, neck and spinal column enter into a complete "bridging" or "arching" position.
Respiratory difficulties
cardiovascular instability

68

define Trismus

spasm of jaw

69

define Opisthotonus

hyperextension and spasticity in which an individual's head, neck and spinal column enter into a complete "bridging" or "arching" position.

70

treatment for clostridium tetani

Antitoxin (horse or human)
Penicillin or metronidazole

71

treatment for muscle spasm in clostridium tetani

o Muscle relaxants
o Respiratory support

72

prevention of clostridium tetani

o Toxoid- antibody against the toxin.
o Vaccine