Flashcards in Infection Prevention control Deck (13):
What are the stages in the chain of infection
1- Pathogenic organism present.
2- reservoir for organism t grow.
3-mode of exit from reservoir
4-mode of transmission from source to host.
5-portal of entry through which pathogen can enter the host.
What methods can be used to eliminate a pathogenic organism
Environment cleaning and decontamination
Antisepsis- disinfect skin
Antibiotic prophylaxis- before surgery.
What methods can be used to remove the reservoir (humans or environment)
environment decontamination and cleaning.
What methods can be used to minimise transmission
personal protective equipment- gloves, apron etc.
What methods can be used to eliminate entry and exist
Antispesis- surgical prep
Asepsis- e.g. when putting in a urinary catheter.
Air handling- air filtration
patient management minimise use of invasive procedures.
What methods can be used to reduce susceptibility to infections
Antibiotic stewardship- start smart then focus
Process of gathering information to ensure that disease outbreaks are pre-empted or identified early
complete killing or removal of all types of microorganisms.
What are the types of sterilisation methods.
Heat- most dry- stem and pressure (140 degrees so only used on metals)
Chemical- gas or liquid
Ionising radiation- used for single use disposable equipment.
Removal or destruction of sufficient numbers of potentially harmful micro-organisms to make an item safe to use
disinfection applied to damaged skin or living tissue. (achieved chemically)
How do you determine which methods you use to disinfect/sterilise equipment.
Risk of infection- High, intermediate, low
Physical properties- Item, packaging materials
Decontamination level- Sterilisation, disinfection (antisepsis), cleaning, disposal
Heat is the least hazardous method and should be used where possible
Chemical disinfection is largely limited to:
– Environmental decontamination (surfaces, spills etc.)
– Heat-sensitive items