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Clinical Pathology > Infection Prevention control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection Prevention control Deck (13):

What are the stages in the chain of infection

1- Pathogenic organism present.
2- reservoir for organism t grow.
3-mode of exit from reservoir
4-mode of transmission from source to host.
5-portal of entry through which pathogen can enter the host.


What methods can be used to eliminate a pathogenic organism

Environment cleaning and decontamination
Equipment decontamination
Antisepsis- disinfect skin
Antibiotic prophylaxis- before surgery.


What methods can be used to remove the reservoir (humans or environment)

hand hygiene
environment decontamination and cleaning.


What methods can be used to minimise transmission

hand hygiene
personal protective equipment- gloves, apron etc.
disposable equipment
equipment decontamination


What methods can be used to eliminate entry and exist

Antispesis- surgical prep
Asepsis- e.g. when putting in a urinary catheter.
Air handling- air filtration
sharps management
patient management minimise use of invasive procedures.


What methods can be used to reduce susceptibility to infections

Antibiotic stewardship- start smart then focus



Process of gathering information to ensure that disease outbreaks are pre-empted or identified early


define sterilisation

complete killing or removal of all types of microorganisms.


What are the types of sterilisation methods.

Heat- most dry- stem and pressure (140 degrees so only used on metals)
Chemical- gas or liquid
Ionising radiation- used for single use disposable equipment.


Define disinfection

Removal or destruction of sufficient numbers of potentially harmful micro-organisms to make an item safe to use


Define antisepsis

disinfection applied to damaged skin or living tissue. (achieved chemically)


How do you determine which methods you use to disinfect/sterilise equipment.

Risk of infection- High, intermediate, low
Physical properties- Item, packaging materials
Decontamination level- Sterilisation, disinfection (antisepsis), cleaning, disposal
Heat is the least hazardous method and should be used where possible
Chemical disinfection is largely limited to:
– Environmental decontamination (surfaces, spills etc.)
– Antisepsis
– Heat-sensitive items


What are the possible negative effects of chemical disinfectatnats

– Physical effects- Corrosiveness
– Harmful effects- Irritant potential, toxicity