China Flashcards Preview

Ancient & Medieval World Cultures > China > Flashcards

Flashcards in China Deck (65)
1

One reason we should learn about Chinese civilization is that in today's world around ___% of the world's population lives in China

25

2

As we have learned, all the primary civilizations developed along rivers, and in China the two key rivers are the ___ and the ___.

Yellow, Yanzi

3

Which key values of Chinese civilization are mentioned by Wood, and in another column, list some of the Western counterparts:

Moral orders sustained by virtue
harmony on earth
ritual reverence for ancestors
control in direction

4

In Chinese the word for ___ means civilization.

writing

5

The first great "path" of Chinese civilization is a philosophy developed by ___.

Confucious

6

Confucius lived from ___ to ___ B.C.

551, 479

7

Confucius maintained that the ideal state would feature a ___ order, sustained with ___ (defined as ___).He also said that people must be taught how to be ___.

moral, virtue, concern for others, good

8

There is no deity in Confucianism, it is not a ___.

religion

9

The U.S. Constitution is 225 years old - Confucius lived ___ years ago,.

2500

10

The second great "path" of Chinese civilization is religion known as ___.

Buddhismq

11

Buddhism came to China from the country of ___ and it tends to emphasize the principles of ___ and detachment from the ___ world.

India, self-renunciation, material

12

During the 11th century A.D. the ___dynasty ruled during China's ___ Age. It was during this time that knowledge of ___ was required to enter government service, and inventions appeared such as:

Sung, Golden, Confucianism; paper money, compass, movable type

13

In the 13th century a Venetian named ___ visited China. He admired many aspects of Chinese civilization and said that the Chinese could have conquered the ___ if they had wanted to.

Marco Polo, world

14

___ later read Marco Polo's journals and they inspired his explorations in the 1400s.

Columbus

15

In the 15th century the ___ Dynasty made a conscious decision to cancel voyages of ___ and made substantial additions to the Great ___.

Ming, exploration, Wall

16

The Chinese "missed" ___/____ revolutions of the 18th century.

Copernical/Scientific

17

In the 19th century Western countries suffered from a ___ deficit with China.

trade

18

Great Britain decided to mass produce ___ and flood Chinese markets with the lower priced drug.

Opium

19

When China objected the result was the ___ wars that China lost in 1842.

Opium

20

China was forced to open itself to western ___ and Great Britain took possession of ___.

trade, Hong Kong

21

From the Chinese perspective, what is the mandate of Heaven?

Regime change: rulers/dynasties have authority to rule as long as they rule in the interests of people => Chinese version of social contract

22

In comparison to India and the Middle East, China developed in relative ___.

isolation

23

Most importantly, China's isolation had an impact on the ___ writing system that they developed.

logographic

24

China occupies much of the ___zone in terms of climate , and the northern region is drained by the ___ River, and the dominant soil is called ___ (Sioux City, Iowa is situated along hills of it as well.)

Temperate, Yellow, Loess

25

The ___ River is the dominant feature of South China

Yangzi

26

From about 10,000 BC ___ was practiced in China, and by 5,000 BC Neolithic ___ ___ started to appear.

agriculture, village settlements.

27

During this Neolithic period a system of ___ aimed at communicating with ancestors or gods based on interpreting cracks induced by heat in cattle bones developed.

divination

28

From 1500 to 1050 BC the ___ Dynasty appeared in China.

Shang

29

The best excavated city of the Shang dynasty is ___.

Anyang

30

Shang kings were successful warriors, but they also served as the high ___ who offered sacrifices to royal ___, who could ___with the god Di.

priests, ancestors, intervene

31

The method of communicating with ancestors was ___associated with the cracks of on oracle bones.

divination

32

Shang kings were ritually ___ underground.

buried

33

Human beings were ___ and/or ___ at many tombs.

buried, sacraficed

34

___ was already a major element in Chinese civilization by 1200 BC.

Writing

35

The Chinese script was ___ meaning that each ___was represented by a single ___.

logographic, word, symbol

36

The effort required to gain full mastery of reading and writing added to the ___ of education.

prestige

37

Chinese script played a large role in holding China together and fostering a sense of ___ to the past.

connection

38

From 12050 to 256 B.C. the ___ Dynasty ruled China.

Zhou.

39

During the Zhou Dynasty, according to the Book of ___, a theory of government evolved in which Heaven gave the King a ___ to rule only as long as he ruled in the interests of the people.

Documents, mandate

40

The Mandate of ___ helped explain why rulers and dynasties sometimes had to be deposed.

Heaven

41

Glimpses of social life during the Zhou Dynasty can be found in the Book of ___.

Songs.

42

During the Warring States Period, a new weapon called the ___was invented around 350 BC and the introduction of ___ in this period also reduced the need for a chariot-riding aristocracy.

crossbow, cavalry

43

One of the most famous treatises on warfare cam from the Zhou period and it was known as The Art of ___ by Sun Wu

War

44

Sun Wu claimed that ___ was a worthless virtue that leads to needless ___; arguing that the entire army had to follow the orders of the commanders without ___ them.

heroism, deaths, questioning

45

The greatest of all ancient Chinese philosophers was a man named ___ who lived from 551 - 479 BCE.

Confucius

46

The thrust of Confucian thought was ___ rather than theoretical or metaphysical.

ethical

47

To Confucius a gentleman was a man of ___ cultivation rather than a man of noble birth.

moral

48

Confucian ___ ideals shaped Chinese civilization into the twentieth century, and the Confucian vision provided the ___ basis for the Chinese family into modern times.

political, moral

49

Daoists focused on the whole natural order identified as the ___ or Dao.

way

50

How is Yin defined?

feminine, dark receptive, yielding, negative and weak

51

How is Yang defined

masculine, bright, assertive, creative, positive, and strong

52

The Daoists believed that unwanted things happen when the balance between ___ and ___ gets disturbed.

yin, Yang

53

Between 800 and 1400, AD, East Asia was the most ___ region of the world.

advanced

54

In the Song Period, the principle that the government should be in the hands of highly educated ___ officials became well-established.

scholar

55

A group known as the ___ would conquer China in 1279, they ruled China at the time of ___ travels.

Mongols, Marco Polo

56

Theory of Dynastic cycle

Vigor to growth => subsequent decline => administrators avoid paying taxes and become "well-off" => cutting state revenue

57

In 742 AD, China's population was still approximately ___ million, but with the expansion of ___ cultivation , the food supply increased and China's population reached ___ million by 1100 AD

50, wet-field rice, 100

58

In the Song Period, foreign trade flourished and important to oceangoing travel was the perfection of the ___.

compass

59

Marco Polo observed city life in Hangzhou, which had ___ marketplaces where __ to ___ thousand people would shop on any given day.

10, 40, 50

60

The Song and Yuan Dynasties ruled China from ___ AD to ___ AD

960, 1368

61

During the Song period an ___ system was used to select officials and in the 11th century ___ type was invented.

examination, movable

62

One popular literary innovation was the ___ which appeared at least five centuries before its European counterpart.

Encyclopedia

63

The 11th and 12th centuries a revival of Confucian thinking known as ___-Confucianism took place.

Neo

64

Women tended to marry between the ages of ___ and ___ and it was arranged by the parents.

16, 20

65

The young bride's first priority was to try to win over her ___ since everyone knew that they were hard to ___.

mother-in-law, please