Flashcards in Rome Deck (127)
It is often noted that ___ was kinder to Italy than Greece, enabling the Romans to experience the full bounty of Mediterranean civilization.
The ___ were among the first people to settle on the Italian peninsula and were credited with inventing the ___.
The Romans perfected the arch and used it to build___,___, and___.
bridges, aqueducts, domes
Roman civilization first appeared along the ___River.
Roman architecture followed the Roman Empire, and in France they constructed an aqueduct that was ___ feet long and ___ feet high.
The Roman Coliseum was built in the __ of the city of Roma between ___and__AD.
center, 70, 80
The Coliseum could seat around ___ people and was used for ___ contests and other public spectacles.
The Coliseum remains are considered an ___ symbol of Imperial Roma
The Coliseum was built in a time span of just ___ years. White rock was used for the skeleton with ___ in between.
The Romans were the first to widely use ___ as a building material.
The gladiatorial shows, ___, were often sponsored by individuals in order to garner public support for an individual or family.
Another popular type of show was the ___, and animal hunt featuring exotic animals that had been capture elsewhere.
Trajan celebrated his victory over the Dacians with ___ contests involving ___ animals and ___ gladiators over a period of ___ days.
107, 11k, 10k, 123
Trajan ordered construction of Trajan's ___, which is decorated with reliefs illustrating the Dacian War.
At Place Vendome in Paris, ___ ordered construction of a column to commemorate the French victory at the Battle of Austerlitz.
It has been estimated that ___ people and a ___ animals died in the "games" at the Coliseum.
The Latin word for the sand on the floor: ___.
The games would begin in the morning following a parade (___) of all participants.
During the lunch break it was common to throw naked and unarmed ___ to the animals, and they would inevitably end up in pieces. The afternoons featured the main event: the ___ contests.
The protagonists were often prisoners of ___ or ___, but some gladiators were free men seeking wealth and ___.
war, slaves, fame
Entrance into the games was ___, but you had to have a ticket --- as many as ___ were jammed in for some events.
Politicians paid for the games to win the support of the masses, while intellectuals opposed the games as cruel events which would lead the populace toward spiritual ___.
When ___ converted to ___, a Christian cross was placed next to the Emperor's seat.
During ___ times the Coliseum was abandoned and many of the stones were used to build other buildings.
Arches were built to commemorate the achievements of rulers such as ___, whose arch was built just outside the coliseum.
In 70 AD the Romans crushed a ___ revolt in Palestine and an arch was built to depict Romans carrying away Jewish treasure.
In Paris, the Arc of ___ was constructed to commemorate French military victories
Pantheon is a Greek term that means ___.
The original Pantheon in Rome was built by Marcus ___.
The Pantheon was rebuilt in the 2nd century AD and was probably completed in its present form while ___ was in power.
The Greeks used the word ___ to refer the their notion that the universe was orderly and that it could be examined and understood with the use of ___.
In Roman times the architectural expression of the notion of the cosmos was the ___; a circle has no beginning and no end --- symbolic of perfection.
The front of the Pantheon features eight ___ , and each is a single piece of marble.
When the "barbarians" sacked Rome in ___AD, they decided not to destroy the Pantheon.
The dome of the Pantheon is made of concrete, and even though this building is almost 2,000 years old it is still the largest ___ concrete dome in the world.
The dome of the Pantheon is ___ to the top and ___ feet across.
We normally observe that architecture defines the ___, but with the Pantheon, the space defines the ___.
In 609 AD, the Byzantine Emperor gave the Pantheon to Pope ___ and the Pantheon was transformed into a Christian Church.
During the 16th century, the artist ___ was buried within the Pantheon.
In the 18th century Thomas Jefferson observed Roman ruins in southern France, and he studied the ___ architecture of a 16th century Italian named ___.
The founders of America wanted to link their Novus Ordo Seclorum (___) to the greatest of the ancient civilizations,; one way to do this was to emulate the architecture of the Greeks and the Romans.
New Order for the ages
The Romans conquered all of Italy, then the western Mediterranean ___, and then the areas in the East that had been part of ___the Great's empire.
The Romans incorporated Greek ___, literature, philosophy, and ___.
When civil ware ended in 31 BCE, the emperor ___ restored peace and expanded power as far as the ___ River, creating what came to be known as the Roman ___.
Augustus, Euphrates, Empire
At it's largest, the Roman Empire stretched from England to ___ and from Portugal to ___.
As Greeks colonized Italy, they transmitted much of their culture to people who lived farther north, such as the ___ who built the first cities.
The ___, who later established a ___ ruled by a Senate.
The Etruscans adopted the Greek ___ and had a rich cultural life that became the foundation of civilization in much of ___.
As the Etruscans moved southward they encountered a small collection of villages subsequently called ___.
Ancestors of the Romans began to settle on hills east of the ___River around 1000 BCE.
Roman foundation myths have Romulus and ___ founding the city of Rome.
Romulus established a council of advisors he called the ___.
Foundation myths ascribe positive traits to the Romans: they are descended from ___ and ___, can thrive in the ___ and ___ settings, will defend their boundaries at all ___ and ___ with other people rather than just conquering them.
gods and heroes
The expulsion of the Etruscan kings is dated at 509 BCE -- to the Romans this marked the end of the ___ period and the dawn of the ___.
Other Estruscan influences include a white woolen robe known as the ___, gladiatorial ___ and honoring the ___.
toga, combat, dead
As the Senate evolved into the main institution of power, executive power was in the hands of leader called ___.
In 387 BCE, the Romans suffered a setback when the ___ or Gauls invaded from the north and sacked the city of ___ -- but then agreed to leave.
Religion for the Romans was largely a matter of honoring the ___ and the ___.
The main goal of religion was to secure the ___ of the gods.
Once they had conquered an area, to cement their new territory they built ___.
Roads were the tangible ___ of unity.
The Romans summed up their political existence in a single phrase: "the ___ and the Roman ___."
The Romans prided themselves in their republican ideal of shared ___ rather than power concentrated in a ___.
Definition: The Roman hereditary aristocracy, who held most of the political power in the republic
Definition: The common people of Rome, who were free but had few of the patricians' advantages
The most important elected assembly was the ___.
During the republic, the Senate sat year after year, while the consuls were elected ___.
The ___ were the highest officials of the republic.
According to tradition, in 494 BCE the ___ literally walked out of Rome and refused to serve in the army.
A compromise allowed the plebeians to elect their own officials, the ___ this was a broadening of political rights.
The acquisition of an overseas empire made many Romans more ___ and comfortable.
Ambitious generals wanted to rule Rome like and ___.
___ briefly ended the civil war and his nephew Octavian, better known as ___ restored peace and stability.
Julius Caesar, Augustus
From Sicily, the Romans were confronted with a great power in northern Africa known as ___.
There would be three wars between Rome and Carthage known as the ___ wars.
In the first of these wars, Roman victory made the island of Sicily it's first ___.
In the Second Punic War, a Carthaginian general named ___ marched troops into Italy, but was defeated when his allies did not support him.,
In the Second Punic War ___ (person) took Spain from the Carthaginians and then invaded Carthage itself.
Scipios victory over Carthage meant that the world of the __ Mediterranean would hence forth be ___,.
The Third Punic Ware featured the complete destruction of Carthage and is described as a needless, ___, and savage conflict.
Now the Romans declared that the Mediterranean was mare ___ ("our sea").
The historian Sallust claimed that the acquisition of an empire was the beginning of Rome's ___.
___ became a great city, reflecting Hellenistic influences, and it became common for an educated Roman to speak ___ and ___.
Rome, Greek, Latin
Romans also adopted the Greek passion for ___ and aqueducts brought water into the city.
Slaves were brought in from the conquered territories, and the Romans believed that slavery was a ___ that befell some people -- it was not based on ___ theories.
The textbook refers to Caesar as an able ___, a brilliant ___ with unbridled ___ and a superb orator with immense ___ ability.
general, politician, ambition, literary
Caesar led his troops to victory in Spain and ___.
The Battle of ___ was Caesar's battle over Gaul.
Upon his return to Italy, civil war broke out between Caesar and ___ -- whom the senate backed but Caesar was victorious.
The corruption surrounding Caesar's rise to power and the ambitions of his enemies contributed to the circumstances surrounding his assassination in the year ___ BCE
It was Octavian who emerged with power in the aftermath of Caesar's death, and in 27 BCE, the Senate gave him the name ___ -- this event is recognized as the start of the Roman ___
Augustus had himself named pontifex maximus, or chief ___, the word prince derives from one of his titles and without specifically saying so Augustus created the office of ___.
August had himself portrayed on coins standing alongside the goddess ___-- later Roman emperors would declare themselves ___
One of the momentous aspects of Augustus' reign was roman expansion into ___ and western Europe.
Augustus made the ___ River the Roman frontier in ___. This meant that for the first time ___ and ___ Europe came into direct and continuous contact with the Mediterranean ___..
Rhine, Germany, central, northern, culture
___ was a great city-state and sea power.
Greeks in Sicily looked to ___ for support against ___
1st Punic War was when (date)
Carthage gives up claim to Sicily in the ___ Punic War
After 1st Punic War, Rome annexes ___ and ___.
2nd Punic war was when (date)
What was the area in dispute in the 2nd Punic War and did Rome succeed?
When was the 3rd Punic War?
What were the consequences of the Punic Wars
1. Roman expansion turns to the west => setting the stage for conquests in the North
2. Roman culture will follow into places like Gaul
3. The Mediterranean Sea is becoming Latin Lake
The Battle of Alesia took place in ___, which is the ancient term for modern-day France and took place in ___ BCE
Julius Caesar is most well-known as a military leader/general, but his ultimate goal was to achieve ___ power over Rome
Among the generals of the ancient world he is often ranked ___ behind Alexander the Great.
Caesar was gifted in a literary sense and he wrote the ___
The Conquest of Gaul
Caesar was born circa ___ BCE in Rome. At this time there was a lot of ___ in the political system and bribery was commonplace.
At the age of 31, Caesar was sent to ___. He returned to Rome and was elected to the ___.
At the age of 41, Caesar was elected ___, one of the 2 annual leaders of Rome.
Caesar decided to ___ the rest of Gaul in an attempt to boost his claim to political power back in Rome.
Gaul was inhabited by ___ tribes of ___ and included a population of millions of people.
Caesar controlled the flow of information back to ___, and used this to enhance his reputation.
Caesar moved toward the ___ River. Rome heard only of his ___. "In war the first casualty is ___"
Rhine, victories, truth
In 55-54 BCE, Caesar became the first Roman general to attempt an invasion of ___. The Gauls cut the ___ lines back to Rome which set the stage for the Battle of ___.
England, supply, Alesia
The leader of the Gauls was a man named ___, and he had amassed an army of ___, while Caesar had ____ men; sophisticated Roman soldiers who fought with a ___.
Veresingetorix, 80K, 70K, sword
Caesar used___ techniques and conducted a ___.
Around___ reinforcement troops arrived for the Gauls, but since Caesar wrote the history of the battle, he may have ___ the numbers to dramatize his victory.
Caesar is credited with being an ___ to his soldiers. Outnumbered ___, the Romans had defended ___ miles of entrenchment and won.
As Caesar returned to Rome, ___ War erupted.
In 45 BCE, the Senate recognized Caesar as ___ of Rome, and the month of ___ was named after him.
On March 15 44 BCE, Caesar was ___ by those who resented his accumulation of power.
Caesar's grand-nephew ___ emerged with power and in effect became the first Roman ___.
Augustus ordered the execution of Caesar's son because he was viewed as a ___.
The film claims that Caesar's legacy includes 1) making the ___ a might-have-been in history, (2) ensuring that the Roman Empire was a mixture of Gaul and ___, (3) he pointed the Roman Empire toward being ___, rather than Mediterranean centered.
Gauls, Rome, eurocentric