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Flashcards in Rome Deck (127)
1

It is often noted that ___ was kinder to Italy than Greece, enabling the Romans to experience the full bounty of Mediterranean civilization.

geography

2

The ___ were among the first people to settle on the Italian peninsula and were credited with inventing the ___.

Etruscan, arch

3

The Romans perfected the arch and used it to build___,___, and___.

bridges, aqueducts, domes

4

Roman civilization first appeared along the ___River.

Tibre

5

Roman architecture followed the Roman Empire, and in France they constructed an aqueduct that was ___ feet long and ___ feet high.

883, 160

6

The Roman Coliseum was built in the __ of the city of Roma between ___and__AD.

center, 70, 80

7

The Coliseum could seat around ___ people and was used for ___ contests and other public spectacles.

50,000, gladitorial

8

The Coliseum remains are considered an ___ symbol of Imperial Roma

iconic

9

The Coliseum was built in a time span of just ___ years. White rock was used for the skeleton with ___ in between.

8, bricks

10

The Romans were the first to widely use ___ as a building material.

concrete

11

The gladiatorial shows, ___, were often sponsored by individuals in order to garner public support for an individual or family.

munera

12

Another popular type of show was the ___, and animal hunt featuring exotic animals that had been capture elsewhere.

venatio

13

Trajan celebrated his victory over the Dacians with ___ contests involving ___ animals and ___ gladiators over a period of ___ days.

107, 11k, 10k, 123

14

Trajan ordered construction of Trajan's ___, which is decorated with reliefs illustrating the Dacian War.

column

15

At Place Vendome in Paris, ___ ordered construction of a column to commemorate the French victory at the Battle of Austerlitz.

Napolean

16

It has been estimated that ___ people and a ___ animals died in the "games" at the Coliseum.

500k, million

17

The Latin word for the sand on the floor: ___.

arena

18

The games would begin in the morning following a parade (___) of all participants.

pompa

19

During the lunch break it was common to throw naked and unarmed ___ to the animals, and they would inevitably end up in pieces. The afternoons featured the main event: the ___ contests.

criminals, gladitorial

20

The protagonists were often prisoners of ___ or ___, but some gladiators were free men seeking wealth and ___.

war, slaves, fame

21

Entrance into the games was ___, but you had to have a ticket --- as many as ___ were jammed in for some events.

free, 70k

22

Politicians paid for the games to win the support of the masses, while intellectuals opposed the games as cruel events which would lead the populace toward spiritual ___.

decadence

23

When ___ converted to ___, a Christian cross was placed next to the Emperor's seat.

Constantine, Christianity

24

During ___ times the Coliseum was abandoned and many of the stones were used to build other buildings.

medieval

25

Arches were built to commemorate the achievements of rulers such as ___, whose arch was built just outside the coliseum.

Constantine

26

In 70 AD the Romans crushed a ___ revolt in Palestine and an arch was built to depict Romans carrying away Jewish treasure.

Jewish

27

In Paris, the Arc of ___ was constructed to commemorate French military victories

Triumph

28

Pantheon is a Greek term that means ___.

every god.

29

The original Pantheon in Rome was built by Marcus ___.

Agrippa

30

The Pantheon was rebuilt in the 2nd century AD and was probably completed in its present form while ___ was in power.

Hadrian

31

The Greeks used the word ___ to refer the their notion that the universe was orderly and that it could be examined and understood with the use of ___.

cosmos, reason

32

In Roman times the architectural expression of the notion of the cosmos was the ___; a circle has no beginning and no end --- symbolic of perfection.

dome

33

The front of the Pantheon features eight ___ , and each is a single piece of marble.

columns

34

When the "barbarians" sacked Rome in ___AD, they decided not to destroy the Pantheon.

40

35

The dome of the Pantheon is made of concrete, and even though this building is almost 2,000 years old it is still the largest ___ concrete dome in the world.

unreinforced

36

The dome of the Pantheon is ___ to the top and ___ feet across.

142,142

37

We normally observe that architecture defines the ___, but with the Pantheon, the space defines the ___.

space, architecture

38

In 609 AD, the Byzantine Emperor gave the Pantheon to Pope ___ and the Pantheon was transformed into a Christian Church.

Boniface IV

39

During the 16th century, the artist ___ was buried within the Pantheon.

Raphael

40

In the 18th century Thomas Jefferson observed Roman ruins in southern France, and he studied the ___ architecture of a 16th century Italian named ___.

neo-classical, Palladio

41

The founders of America wanted to link their Novus Ordo Seclorum (___) to the greatest of the ancient civilizations,; one way to do this was to emulate the architecture of the Greeks and the Romans.

New Order for the ages

42

The Romans conquered all of Italy, then the western Mediterranean ___, and then the areas in the East that had been part of ___the Great's empire.

Basin, Alexander

43

The Romans incorporated Greek ___, literature, philosophy, and ___.

art, religion

44

When civil ware ended in 31 BCE, the emperor ___ restored peace and expanded power as far as the ___ River, creating what came to be known as the Roman ___.

Augustus, Euphrates, Empire

45

At it's largest, the Roman Empire stretched from England to ___ and from Portugal to ___.

Egypt, Persia

46

As Greeks colonized Italy, they transmitted much of their culture to people who lived farther north, such as the ___ who built the first cities.

Etruscans

47

The ___, who later established a ___ ruled by a Senate.

Romans, republic

48

The Etruscans adopted the Greek ___ and had a rich cultural life that became the foundation of civilization in much of ___.

alphabet, Italy

49

As the Etruscans moved southward they encountered a small collection of villages subsequently called ___.

Rome

50

Ancestors of the Romans began to settle on hills east of the ___River around 1000 BCE.

Tibre

51

Roman foundation myths have Romulus and ___ founding the city of Rome.

Remus

52

Romulus established a council of advisors he called the ___.

Senate

53

Foundation myths ascribe positive traits to the Romans: they are descended from ___ and ___, can thrive in the ___ and ___ settings, will defend their boundaries at all ___ and ___ with other people rather than just conquering them.

gods and heroes
wild, tough
costs
mix

54

The expulsion of the Etruscan kings is dated at 509 BCE -- to the Romans this marked the end of the ___ period and the dawn of the ___.

monarchial, republic

55

Other Estruscan influences include a white woolen robe known as the ___, gladiatorial ___ and honoring the ___.

toga, combat, dead

56

As the Senate evolved into the main institution of power, executive power was in the hands of leader called ___.

aristocrats

57

In 387 BCE, the Romans suffered a setback when the ___ or Gauls invaded from the north and sacked the city of ___ -- but then agreed to leave.

Celts, Rome

58

Religion for the Romans was largely a matter of honoring the ___ and the ___.

state, family.

59

The main goal of religion was to secure the ___ of the gods.

peace

60

Once they had conquered an area, to cement their new territory they built ___.

roads

61

Roads were the tangible ___ of unity.

sinew

62

The Romans summed up their political existence in a single phrase: "the ___ and the Roman ___."

Senate, people

63

The Romans prided themselves in their republican ideal of shared ___ rather than power concentrated in a ___.

government, manoarchy

64

Definition: The Roman hereditary aristocracy, who held most of the political power in the republic

patricians

65

Definition: The common people of Rome, who were free but had few of the patricians' advantages

plebians

66

The most important elected assembly was the ___.

Senate

67

During the republic, the Senate sat year after year, while the consuls were elected ___.

annually

68

The ___ were the highest officials of the republic.

Consuls

69

According to tradition, in 494 BCE the ___ literally walked out of Rome and refused to serve in the army.

plebians

70

A compromise allowed the plebeians to elect their own officials, the ___ this was a broadening of political rights.

tribunes

71

The acquisition of an overseas empire made many Romans more ___ and comfortable.

cosmopolitan

72

Ambitious generals wanted to rule Rome like and ___.

Empire

73

___ briefly ended the civil war and his nephew Octavian, better known as ___ restored peace and stability.

Julius Caesar, Augustus

74

From Sicily, the Romans were confronted with a great power in northern Africa known as ___.

Carthage

75

There would be three wars between Rome and Carthage known as the ___ wars.

Punic

76

In the first of these wars, Roman victory made the island of Sicily it's first ___.

province

77

In the Second Punic War, a Carthaginian general named ___ marched troops into Italy, but was defeated when his allies did not support him.,

Hannibal.

78

In the Second Punic War ___ (person) took Spain from the Carthaginians and then invaded Carthage itself.

Scipio

79

Scipios victory over Carthage meant that the world of the __ Mediterranean would hence forth be ___,.

western, Roman

80

The Third Punic Ware featured the complete destruction of Carthage and is described as a needless, ___, and savage conflict.

unjust

81

Now the Romans declared that the Mediterranean was mare ___ ("our sea").

nostrum

82

The historian Sallust claimed that the acquisition of an empire was the beginning of Rome's ___.

troubles

83

___ became a great city, reflecting Hellenistic influences, and it became common for an educated Roman to speak ___ and ___.

Rome, Greek, Latin

84

Romans also adopted the Greek passion for ___ and aqueducts brought water into the city.

bathing

85

Slaves were brought in from the conquered territories, and the Romans believed that slavery was a ___ that befell some people -- it was not based on ___ theories.

misfortune, racial

86

The textbook refers to Caesar as an able ___, a brilliant ___ with unbridled ___ and a superb orator with immense ___ ability.

general, politician, ambition, literary

87

Caesar led his troops to victory in Spain and ___.

Gaul

88

The Battle of ___ was Caesar's battle over Gaul.

Alesia.

89

Upon his return to Italy, civil war broke out between Caesar and ___ -- whom the senate backed but Caesar was victorious.

Pompey

90

The corruption surrounding Caesar's rise to power and the ambitions of his enemies contributed to the circumstances surrounding his assassination in the year ___ BCE

44

91

It was Octavian who emerged with power in the aftermath of Caesar's death, and in 27 BCE, the Senate gave him the name ___ -- this event is recognized as the start of the Roman ___

Augustus, Republic

92

Augustus had himself named pontifex maximus, or chief ___, the word prince derives from one of his titles and without specifically saying so Augustus created the office of ___.

priest, Emperor

93

August had himself portrayed on coins standing alongside the goddess ___-- later Roman emperors would declare themselves ___

Victory, god

94

One of the momentous aspects of Augustus' reign was roman expansion into ___ and western Europe.

northern

95

Augustus made the ___ River the Roman frontier in ___. This meant that for the first time ___ and ___ Europe came into direct and continuous contact with the Mediterranean ___..

Rhine, Germany, central, northern, culture

96

___ was a great city-state and sea power.

Carthage

97

Greeks in Sicily looked to ___ for support against ___

Rome, Carthage

98

1st Punic War was when (date)

264-241 BCE

99

Carthage gives up claim to Sicily in the ___ Punic War

1st

100

After 1st Punic War, Rome annexes ___ and ___.

Sardinia, Corsica

101

2nd Punic war was when (date)

218-201 BCE

102

What was the area in dispute in the 2nd Punic War and did Rome succeed?

Spain, Yes

103

When was the 3rd Punic War?

146 BCE

104

What were the consequences of the Punic Wars

1. Roman expansion turns to the west => setting the stage for conquests in the North
2. Roman culture will follow into places like Gaul
3. The Mediterranean Sea is becoming Latin Lake

105

The Battle of Alesia took place in ___, which is the ancient term for modern-day France and took place in ___ BCE

Gaul, 52

106

Julius Caesar is most well-known as a military leader/general, but his ultimate goal was to achieve ___ power over Rome

political

107

Among the generals of the ancient world he is often ranked ___ behind Alexander the Great.

second

108

Caesar was gifted in a literary sense and he wrote the ___

The Conquest of Gaul

109

Caesar was born circa ___ BCE in Rome. At this time there was a lot of ___ in the political system and bribery was commonplace.

100 corruption

110

At the age of 31, Caesar was sent to ___. He returned to Rome and was elected to the ___.

Spain, Senate

111

At the age of 41, Caesar was elected ___, one of the 2 annual leaders of Rome.

Consul

112

Caesar decided to ___ the rest of Gaul in an attempt to boost his claim to political power back in Rome.

conquer

113

Gaul was inhabited by ___ tribes of ___ and included a population of millions of people.

60, Celts

114

Caesar controlled the flow of information back to ___, and used this to enhance his reputation.

Rome

115

Caesar moved toward the ___ River. Rome heard only of his ___. "In war the first casualty is ___"

Rhine, victories, truth

116

In 55-54 BCE, Caesar became the first Roman general to attempt an invasion of ___. The Gauls cut the ___ lines back to Rome which set the stage for the Battle of ___.

England, supply, Alesia

117

The leader of the Gauls was a man named ___, and he had amassed an army of ___, while Caesar had ____ men; sophisticated Roman soldiers who fought with a ___.

Veresingetorix, 80K, 70K, sword

118

Caesar used___ techniques and conducted a ___.

entrenching, siege

119

Around___ reinforcement troops arrived for the Gauls, but since Caesar wrote the history of the battle, he may have ___ the numbers to dramatize his victory.

250k, modified

120

Caesar is credited with being an ___ to his soldiers. Outnumbered ___, the Romans had defended ___ miles of entrenchment and won.

5-1, 25

121

As Caesar returned to Rome, ___ War erupted.

Civil

122

In 45 BCE, the Senate recognized Caesar as ___ of Rome, and the month of ___ was named after him.

dictator, July

123

On March 15 44 BCE, Caesar was ___ by those who resented his accumulation of power.

assisnated

124

Caesar's grand-nephew ___ emerged with power and in effect became the first Roman ___.

Augustus, Emperor

125

Augustus ordered the execution of Caesar's son because he was viewed as a ___.

rival

126

The film claims that Caesar's legacy includes 1) making the ___ a might-have-been in history, (2) ensuring that the Roman Empire was a mixture of Gaul and ___, (3) he pointed the Roman Empire toward being ___, rather than Mediterranean centered.

Gauls, Rome, eurocentric

127

With reference to Caesar, in subsequent history, the king of the Germans would be called ___ and the king of the Russians would be called ___.

Kaiser, Tsar