Europe and the Middle Ages Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Europe and the Middle Ages Deck (92)
1

In the 15th century scholars in northern Italian cities began to think that they were living in a new ___ in which the glories of ancient ___ and ___ were being reborn.

era, Greece, Rome

2

In between their own time and classical antiquity was a long period of ___ and barbarism which came to be known as the ___. This interpretation is known as ___ history lesson.

darkness, middle ages
traditional/conventional

3

Another interpretation of this that this era was not a period of stagnation but rather a time of enormous intellectual ___ and ___. This interpretation is known as the ___ history lesson.

energy, creative vitality
revised

4

In the 9th century which prayer was often uttered around Europe?

"Save us, O God, from the violence of the Northmen"

5

Besides raids from Vikings, groups from central Europe such as the ___ who came to be known as the Hungarians, also attacked European settlements.

Magyars

6

By 100 descendants of the Vikings ruled Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and northern France, a province that became known as ___

Normandy

7

Definition: A knight who has sworn loyalty to a particular lord.

Vassal

8

Definition: A portion of land, the use of which was given by a lord to a vassal in exchange for the latter's oath of loyalty.

fief

9

Definition: A medieval European political system that defines the military obligations and relations between a lord and his vassals and involves the granting of fiefs.

feudalism

10

Definition: The economic system that governed rural life in medieval Europe, in which the landed estates of a lord were worked by the peasants under the lord's jurisdiction in exchange for his protection.

manorialism

11

Definition: A peasant who lost his or her freedom and became permanently bound to the landed estate of a lord.

serf

12

In 1066 A.D. William of ___ a French speaking descendant of the Vikings, won the ___ throne by winning the Battle of ___.

Normandy, English, Hastings

13

William of Normandy ordered compilation of what became known as the ___ Book which survived as a source of ___ and economic information about ___ England.

Domesday
social, economic
medieval

14

In 1215, the English King ___ was required to sign the ___, a document that claims that everyone , even the ___ must obey the law.

John
magna carte
king

15

The outright selling of church offices was called___.

simony

16

The ___ councils of 1059 A.D. was an attempt to make the church independent from secular rulers and it proclaimed that the power to elect the ___ rested solely in the college of ___.

Lateran
pope
cardinals

17

Pope ___ VII argued that papal orders were the orders of ___ and he excommunicated bishops who opposed him.

Gregory, God

18

Monasteries and convents were deeply affected by issues of ___, ___, and ___ and they often became wealthy.

money, rank and power

19

In 1098 A.D. a new religious order called the ___ attempted to go back to a simpler lifestyle, but soon they became wealthy as well.

Cistercians

20

Order such as the Dominicans and the ___ appeared and a papal Inquisition became a special court to root out ___.

Franciscans, heresy

21

Apart from the land, weather , legal and social conditions, ___ had the greatest impact on the daily lives of ordinary people in ___ Europe.

religion, medieval

22

In what ways was the village church the center of community life?

Social, political, economical and religious

23

The entire calendar was designed with reference to ___, ___ and Pentecost.

Christmas, Easter

24

The cult of ___ which developed in a rural and uneducated environment, represents a central feature of popular ___ in the Middle Ages

saints, culture.

25

Each saint became the property of the locality in which his or her ___ rested, often enclosed in the church alter.

relics

26

In the 11th and 12th centuries, Christianity expanded into ___, the ___ lands, ___ Europe and Spain.

Scandinavia, Baltic, Eastern

27

More and more Europeans thought of themselves as belonging to a realm of Christianity that was ___ as well as religious, a realm they called ___.

political, Christendom

28

The ___ Peninsula included Portugal and Spain. The attempt to expel Muslims from this Peninsula was called the ___.

Iberian
Reconquista

29

In the 11th and 12th centuries the expansion of Christianity included the ___ - wars sponsored by the ___ to recover the holy city of ___ from the Muslims.

Crusades, papacy, Jerusalem

30

The word crusade means ___.

taking up the cross

31

Another motivation for the Crusades was to strengthen the position of the pope as the leader of Christian society in the ___.

west

32

In exchange for their participation in the Crusades, people would be forgiven of their ___.

sins

33

The First Crusade did capture ___ in July ___.

Jerusalem, 1099

34

The Crusaders were also ___- during the 4th Crusade they stopped in the city of ___and grabbed thousands of ___ and sold them in Europe.

robbers,Constantinople, relics

35

The actions during the Crusades ___ the entire movement in the eyes of many Christians.

discredited

36

What were some of the seriously negative sociopolitical consequences of the Crusades?

1. Disaster for Jewish-Christian relations
2. Deep bitterness in the Christian-Muslim relations

37

Late in the 9th century intellectuals described Christian society as divided in to those who___, those who___, and whose who ___ -- a model that can still be used with a few modifications.

pray, fight, work

38

Those who worked on the land probably made up more than ___% of the population.

90

39

Most peasants who worked were serfs and serfdom was a ___ condition.

hereditary

40

The ___ was the basic unit of medieval rural organization and the center of rural life.

manor

41

The mainstay of the diet for everyone in the Middle Ages was ___, meat was usually only eaten on great feast days and ___ was the universal drink - providing needed calories.

bread, wine

42

Which qualities came to be associated with chivalrey

* Code of conduct to fight to defend the Christian faith
* Bravery
* Generosity
* Honor
* Graciousness
* Mercy
* Gallantry toward women

43

The growth of towns was made possible by a rise in ___, increased agricultural ___ and a minimum of peace and political stability.

population, output

44

Medieval towns were almost always enclosed by ___ and ___ guilds were organized by artisans.

Walls, crafted

45

Animal and human ___ was dumped in the front of houses.

waste

46

Italian cities, especially ___ led the West in trade.

Venice

47

The ___ League was formed to facilitate trade in northern Europe.

Hanseatic

48

The gradual transformation of Europe from a manorial society to a more complex mercantile society is referred to in the text as the commercial ___.

revolution

49

As towns developed into intellectual and cultural centers a new type of educational institution emerged - the ___.

University

50

___ was viewed as the queen of the sciences because it involved the study of ___ who was said to make all knowledge possible.

Theology, God

51

In the early 12th century, many students went to the city of ___ to study at the cathedral of ___.

Paris, Notre Dame

52

The goal of the Scholastics was to arrive at definitive answers and provide a rational explanation for what was believed on ___.

faith

53

At the University of Paris, Thomas ___ wrote his Summa __ -- an attempt to systematically explain what Christians believed.

Theologica

54

The standard method of teaching was the ____.

lecture

55

Between 1300 and 1450 Europeans experienced a frightful series of shocks: ___ change, economic ___, ___, war, social ___.

climate, decline, plague, upheaval

56

Europeans suffered from what historical geographers called the "little ___ age" and almost all of northern Europe suffered a terrible ___ between 1315 and 1322.

Ice, famine

57

In 1347, the ___ swept across much of Europe - of a total population of 4.2 million, probably ___ million died. In response, some people sought release in wild ___, while others turned to the severest forms of ___ and frenzied religious fervor.

Black Death
1.4
living
ascetiscm

58

In 12th century France a new architectural style developed - it was dubbed ___ by later Renaissance architects who thought that only uncouth ___ could have invented such a dis-unified style.

Gothic, goths

59

The cathedral was intended to teach the people the doctrines of the ___ faith through ___..

Christian, image

60

England and France fought for 116 years in what became known as the ___.

Hundred Years War

61

The victory of the French rest heavily on ___, who was burned as a heretic in the French city of ___ in 1431, later to be made a saint in the year ___.

Joan of Arc
Rouen
1920

62

When three men all claimed to be Pope the scandal was called the Great ___. In 1414 the Council if ___ was convened to correct the situation.

Schism, Constance

63

The ___ was over, but those who had hoped that the council would also reform ___ in the church were disappointed and a fundamental issue had been raised which eventually lead to the ___.

schism, problems, protestant reformation

64

The Renaissance begins when Cosimo de Medici and his friends search Europe for ___.

manuscripts

65

Simply reading pagan authors like ___ and ___ was punishable by excommunication from the church.

Plato, Socrates

66

Popes could excommunicate Christians guilty of ___ which was believing anything other than what the church preached.

heresy

67

Brunelleschi used ___ as supports for first time in 1000 years, creating a revolution in architecture.

columns

68

Cosimo's patronage of Burnelleschi helped the Medici family gain ___.

power and prestige

69

The ___ banking family, who resented the power of the Medici, had ___ arrested.

Albizzi, Cosimo

70

Brunelleschi was jailed and forced to stop work on the dome when his patron was found guilty of treason against ___.

Florence

71

Cosimo escaped from the tower that was his prison by ___ the guards

bribing

72

When Cosimo was finally asked to return to Florence, he had even more power and prestige, The Medici banks became the most important banks in Europe as they collected money for the ___.

pope

73

Cosimo de Medici's patronage of Baldesari Cossa paid of when Cossa became Pope ___

John XXIII

74

Florence was proud to be the only ___ in Europe; the government was often corrupt.

Republic

75

Seventy percent of all Renaissance ___ lived and worked in Florence.

artists

76

Brunelleschi also invented linear ___.

perspective

77

Once the dome was finished, Cosimo organized the ___ of Florence which brought people from all over the world to his city.

General Council

78

When Cosimo died in 1464, the Florentines declared him ___; father of the fatherland.

Pater Patriae

79

To Christians it was the city of Constantinople, but the Turks renamed it ___.

Istanbul

80

The Byzantine Emperor ___ needed help from western Christians because the ___ were poised to overrun Constantinople, so he asked for it in a letter to the Pope.

Alexis, Turks

81

The dominant monastery in Europe at the time of the Crusades was located at ___ in the country of France.

Cluny

82

In the ___ century, the monastery at Cluny included the largest enclosed place in the world.

11th

83

In 1073, Pope ___ had made moves to largest consolidate the power of the pope and Western Europe was becoming known as ___.

Gregory VII, Christendom

84

Pope Gregory's successor ___ received the letter from Alexis in 1095.

Urban II

85

Christian Knight such as ___ faced a moral dilemma because they were being taught that Christ's advice was to turn the other cheek. Pope Urban II resolved the dilemma by claiming it was only a sin to kill a Christian

Tancred

86

It seemed that war would be a form of ___, an assistance to ___ and a form of ___.

penance, salvation, devotion.

87

The first victims of the First Crusade were ___ in German cities like Worms. Karen Armstrong observes that crusading institutionalized ___.

Jews, anti-semetism

88

Medieval maps put ___ at the center of world, and this was the destination of the "Pilgrims in Arms."

Jerusalem

89

Historian Steve Runciaman refers to the crusades as ___ invasions.

barbarian

90

When the crusaders reached Constantinople they must have been impressed because it was larger than all the Christian cities of ___ combined. They crossed the ___, which is 800 yards wide, into Asia.

Europe, Bosphorus

91

The People's Crusade mistakenly attacked Christians in Asia and committed hideous atrocities. When they were captured by Turks they had the option of death or conversion to ___, which included ___. In an ambush the ___ was wiped out.

Islam, circumcision, People's Crusade

92

Knowing about the Crusades can help us understand why there is long-standing ___toward the West among Muslim societies.

resentment