Flashcards in Europe and the Middle Ages Deck (92)
In the 15th century scholars in northern Italian cities began to think that they were living in a new ___ in which the glories of ancient ___ and ___ were being reborn.
era, Greece, Rome
In between their own time and classical antiquity was a long period of ___ and barbarism which came to be known as the ___. This interpretation is known as ___ history lesson.
darkness, middle ages
Another interpretation of this that this era was not a period of stagnation but rather a time of enormous intellectual ___ and ___. This interpretation is known as the ___ history lesson.
energy, creative vitality
In the 9th century which prayer was often uttered around Europe?
"Save us, O God, from the violence of the Northmen"
Besides raids from Vikings, groups from central Europe such as the ___ who came to be known as the Hungarians, also attacked European settlements.
By 100 descendants of the Vikings ruled Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and northern France, a province that became known as ___
Definition: A knight who has sworn loyalty to a particular lord.
Definition: A portion of land, the use of which was given by a lord to a vassal in exchange for the latter's oath of loyalty.
Definition: A medieval European political system that defines the military obligations and relations between a lord and his vassals and involves the granting of fiefs.
Definition: The economic system that governed rural life in medieval Europe, in which the landed estates of a lord were worked by the peasants under the lord's jurisdiction in exchange for his protection.
Definition: A peasant who lost his or her freedom and became permanently bound to the landed estate of a lord.
In 1066 A.D. William of ___ a French speaking descendant of the Vikings, won the ___ throne by winning the Battle of ___.
Normandy, English, Hastings
William of Normandy ordered compilation of what became known as the ___ Book which survived as a source of ___ and economic information about ___ England.
In 1215, the English King ___ was required to sign the ___, a document that claims that everyone , even the ___ must obey the law.
The outright selling of church offices was called___.
The ___ councils of 1059 A.D. was an attempt to make the church independent from secular rulers and it proclaimed that the power to elect the ___ rested solely in the college of ___.
Pope ___ VII argued that papal orders were the orders of ___ and he excommunicated bishops who opposed him.
Monasteries and convents were deeply affected by issues of ___, ___, and ___ and they often became wealthy.
money, rank and power
In 1098 A.D. a new religious order called the ___ attempted to go back to a simpler lifestyle, but soon they became wealthy as well.
Order such as the Dominicans and the ___ appeared and a papal Inquisition became a special court to root out ___.
Apart from the land, weather , legal and social conditions, ___ had the greatest impact on the daily lives of ordinary people in ___ Europe.
In what ways was the village church the center of community life?
Social, political, economical and religious
The entire calendar was designed with reference to ___, ___ and Pentecost.
The cult of ___ which developed in a rural and uneducated environment, represents a central feature of popular ___ in the Middle Ages
Each saint became the property of the locality in which his or her ___ rested, often enclosed in the church alter.
In the 11th and 12th centuries, Christianity expanded into ___, the ___ lands, ___ Europe and Spain.
Scandinavia, Baltic, Eastern
More and more Europeans thought of themselves as belonging to a realm of Christianity that was ___ as well as religious, a realm they called ___.
The ___ Peninsula included Portugal and Spain. The attempt to expel Muslims from this Peninsula was called the ___.
In the 11th and 12th centuries the expansion of Christianity included the ___ - wars sponsored by the ___ to recover the holy city of ___ from the Muslims.
Crusades, papacy, Jerusalem
The word crusade means ___.
taking up the cross
Another motivation for the Crusades was to strengthen the position of the pope as the leader of Christian society in the ___.
In exchange for their participation in the Crusades, people would be forgiven of their ___.
The First Crusade did capture ___ in July ___.
The Crusaders were also ___- during the 4th Crusade they stopped in the city of ___and grabbed thousands of ___ and sold them in Europe.
The actions during the Crusades ___ the entire movement in the eyes of many Christians.
What were some of the seriously negative sociopolitical consequences of the Crusades?
1. Disaster for Jewish-Christian relations
2. Deep bitterness in the Christian-Muslim relations
Late in the 9th century intellectuals described Christian society as divided in to those who___, those who___, and whose who ___ -- a model that can still be used with a few modifications.
pray, fight, work
Those who worked on the land probably made up more than ___% of the population.
Most peasants who worked were serfs and serfdom was a ___ condition.
The ___ was the basic unit of medieval rural organization and the center of rural life.
The mainstay of the diet for everyone in the Middle Ages was ___, meat was usually only eaten on great feast days and ___ was the universal drink - providing needed calories.
Which qualities came to be associated with chivalrey
* Code of conduct to fight to defend the Christian faith
* Gallantry toward women
The growth of towns was made possible by a rise in ___, increased agricultural ___ and a minimum of peace and political stability.
Medieval towns were almost always enclosed by ___ and ___ guilds were organized by artisans.
Animal and human ___ was dumped in the front of houses.
Italian cities, especially ___ led the West in trade.
The ___ League was formed to facilitate trade in northern Europe.
The gradual transformation of Europe from a manorial society to a more complex mercantile society is referred to in the text as the commercial ___.
As towns developed into intellectual and cultural centers a new type of educational institution emerged - the ___.
___ was viewed as the queen of the sciences because it involved the study of ___ who was said to make all knowledge possible.
In the early 12th century, many students went to the city of ___ to study at the cathedral of ___.
Paris, Notre Dame
The goal of the Scholastics was to arrive at definitive answers and provide a rational explanation for what was believed on ___.
At the University of Paris, Thomas ___ wrote his Summa __ -- an attempt to systematically explain what Christians believed.
The standard method of teaching was the ____.
Between 1300 and 1450 Europeans experienced a frightful series of shocks: ___ change, economic ___, ___, war, social ___.
climate, decline, plague, upheaval
Europeans suffered from what historical geographers called the "little ___ age" and almost all of northern Europe suffered a terrible ___ between 1315 and 1322.
In 1347, the ___ swept across much of Europe - of a total population of 4.2 million, probably ___ million died. In response, some people sought release in wild ___, while others turned to the severest forms of ___ and frenzied religious fervor.
In 12th century France a new architectural style developed - it was dubbed ___ by later Renaissance architects who thought that only uncouth ___ could have invented such a dis-unified style.
The cathedral was intended to teach the people the doctrines of the ___ faith through ___..
England and France fought for 116 years in what became known as the ___.
Hundred Years War
The victory of the French rest heavily on ___, who was burned as a heretic in the French city of ___ in 1431, later to be made a saint in the year ___.
Joan of Arc
When three men all claimed to be Pope the scandal was called the Great ___. In 1414 the Council if ___ was convened to correct the situation.
The ___ was over, but those who had hoped that the council would also reform ___ in the church were disappointed and a fundamental issue had been raised which eventually lead to the ___.
schism, problems, protestant reformation
The Renaissance begins when Cosimo de Medici and his friends search Europe for ___.
Simply reading pagan authors like ___ and ___ was punishable by excommunication from the church.
Popes could excommunicate Christians guilty of ___ which was believing anything other than what the church preached.
Brunelleschi used ___ as supports for first time in 1000 years, creating a revolution in architecture.
Cosimo's patronage of Burnelleschi helped the Medici family gain ___.
power and prestige
The ___ banking family, who resented the power of the Medici, had ___ arrested.
Brunelleschi was jailed and forced to stop work on the dome when his patron was found guilty of treason against ___.
Cosimo escaped from the tower that was his prison by ___ the guards
When Cosimo was finally asked to return to Florence, he had even more power and prestige, The Medici banks became the most important banks in Europe as they collected money for the ___.
Cosimo de Medici's patronage of Baldesari Cossa paid of when Cossa became Pope ___
Florence was proud to be the only ___ in Europe; the government was often corrupt.
Seventy percent of all Renaissance ___ lived and worked in Florence.
Brunelleschi also invented linear ___.
Once the dome was finished, Cosimo organized the ___ of Florence which brought people from all over the world to his city.
When Cosimo died in 1464, the Florentines declared him ___; father of the fatherland.
To Christians it was the city of Constantinople, but the Turks renamed it ___.
The Byzantine Emperor ___ needed help from western Christians because the ___ were poised to overrun Constantinople, so he asked for it in a letter to the Pope.
The dominant monastery in Europe at the time of the Crusades was located at ___ in the country of France.
In the ___ century, the monastery at Cluny included the largest enclosed place in the world.
In 1073, Pope ___ had made moves to largest consolidate the power of the pope and Western Europe was becoming known as ___.
Gregory VII, Christendom
Pope Gregory's successor ___ received the letter from Alexis in 1095.
Christian Knight such as ___ faced a moral dilemma because they were being taught that Christ's advice was to turn the other cheek. Pope Urban II resolved the dilemma by claiming it was only a sin to kill a Christian
It seemed that war would be a form of ___, an assistance to ___ and a form of ___.
penance, salvation, devotion.
The first victims of the First Crusade were ___ in German cities like Worms. Karen Armstrong observes that crusading institutionalized ___.
Medieval maps put ___ at the center of world, and this was the destination of the "Pilgrims in Arms."
Historian Steve Runciaman refers to the crusades as ___ invasions.
When the crusaders reached Constantinople they must have been impressed because it was larger than all the Christian cities of ___ combined. They crossed the ___, which is 800 yards wide, into Asia.
The People's Crusade mistakenly attacked Christians in Asia and committed hideous atrocities. When they were captured by Turks they had the option of death or conversion to ___, which included ___. In an ambush the ___ was wiped out.
Islam, circumcision, People's Crusade