Flashcards in Egypt Deck (85)
Egyptian civilization appeared around ______ years ago.
Two keys to understanding the culture of ancient Egypt include a strong sense of __________ and a drive to overcome time and __________.
The _______ River is _______ miles long. It flows north into the Mediterranean Sea.
The Nile River shaped Egyptian civilization and that it helped make the Egyptian civilization _______, whereas Mesopotamian civilizations tended to be more ________.
King _____ was an early unifier of Egypt.
According to Michael Wood, in what sense are we still "Bronze Age: people.
We still struggle w/ many of the same questions
Wood claims that the three themes of Egyptian history are
1) Centralized Power
2) Royal rituals
3) Cult of the dead
The first pyramids were built in ______ BCE.
For a long time it was believed that the pyramids were built by someone other than the Egyptians or by _____ labor, but the most recent research claims they were built by a highly trained _________ workforce and this has become a source of pride for contemporary Egyptians.
When the Greek historian ________ visited Egypt in the 450s BCE, the pyramids were already around 2000 years old. Herodotus was told it took ________ years and the labor of ___________ workers to build the pyramids.
Herodotus, 20; 100,000
Wood claims that the pyramids were built to serve a s a staircase pharaohs could use to ascend into ______.
In as clear a case of __________ as history affords, pagan societies had political systems that reflected these ideas, including elaborate public ceremonials, sacrifices, and priestly offices.
The foremost job of the political ruler was to ______ with and appease the ________ in the natural order, to integrate society and _______, in Henri Frankfort's terminology.
The king or magistrate was the leader in a religious _____, which made the state the vital linkage between humanity and the ______. The political effect of this arrangement was immense.
Evans is contending that an ancient civilization, like Egyptian civilization, was a __________and had more in common with modern ________ regimes than with contemporary western society.
It was the religious ________ of the Egyptians that served as the driving force in their culture - many of their resources were used to promote their cult of the dead.
The work force of Egypt was regulated so that ______ could be used to grow the crops required to sustain that civilization.
The Egyptian myth of the need for a ______ still informs much of the modern world. Example of contemporary ruler?
Putan - people like the idea of a ruler that is re-asserting Russian power.
In the film, Wood travels to ________ and visits a temple that celebrates the resurrection of ___________, who was brought back to life by his wife _______.
Abydos, Osiris, Isis
_____ was considered to be the offspring of Osiris and Iris.
The pharaoh was considered to be the incarnation of Horus, with the ___________ as his symbol.
Indigenous Egyptian religion was characterized by themes of ________, _________ & _______ prior to Christianity.
Death, resurrection and incarnation
The textbook refers to Egyptian civilization as "a more cohesive _______" than those that developed in Mesopotamia.
A Greek historian name ____________ referred to Egypt as the gift of the __________.
Somehow the idea developed that a single individual, a ______ was responsible for the rise and fall of the Nile.
The king came to be viewed as a descendant of the ______ and thus a ______himself.
The focal point of religious and political life in the Old Kingdom was the _______ who commanded the ___, _______ & _________ of Egypt.
wealth, resources & people
During the New Kingdom the word ____ came to be used for the king, originally it meant " great _____"
The "great house' that a king was buried in became known as a _______.
The Egyptians were ______, which means they worshiped many _____.
Among the Egyptian Gods was the sun-god ___, the creator of life. Later dynasties worshiped a different sun-god, _____ whom they described as creating the entire cosmos by his thoughts - Eventually they combined them into one god _____
The Egyptians may have been the first people to develop views of an afterlife, as described in their Book of the _____
Essential Egyptian religious beliefs claimed that the soul left the body after death. A god named ______ died each year and was then brought back to life by his wife ___ when the Nile flooded.
Egyptian religious beliefs developed to explain____
how and why the Nile flooded
Mummification was essential so Osiris was assisted by ________, the jackal-headed god of mummification
Egyptian scribes created two writing systems - _________for engraving important religious or political texts on stone and __________for documents of daily life.
What did the majority of the Egyptian people do June - October
Pharaoh's buildings and tasks. When the water began to recede they diverted water into ponds for future irrigation and began planting wheat and barley
October - February
Planted and tended crops
February - next flood
It used to be believed that slaves built the pyramids, but recent research indicates that most people who built the pyramids were ______for their work.
What kinds of rights did many "ordinary" women have in Egyptian society?
Considerable economic and legal rights. They could own land, operate businesses and testify in court.
Around 1800 BCE, an outside group known as the ____ entered Egypt as migrants.
The Hykos began to worship Egyptian deities and brought with them ___ tools, which ushered Egypt in the __________ Age
By the time of the New Kingdom (1570 BCE), Egypt had enormous wealth, conscious ______ and a greater sense of ________.
A woman named ________ was one of the few female pharaohs.
A pharaoh named ____tried to introduce worship of a new sun-god named ____ but this did not catch on as people preferred to worship the older gods and the gods of their particular regions.
Among the migrating groups that spoke an Indo-European language was a group known as the ______
Around ____ BCE, Hittite kings began to conquer more territory and came into conflict with the Egyptians.
A pharaoh name ______ secured a peace treaty with the Hittites that was written in _used by the Egyptians and ________used by the Hittites.
Ramesses II, Hieroglyphics and Cuneiform
When the "Sea Peoples" Mounted attacks and the Assyrians expanded, the Bronze age came to end around _______ BCE
A new material was smelted for the first time in Anatolia as early as 2500 BCE - it was known as ____
Iron was used for weaponry around the year ________ BCE and so the Iron Age began
Along the Mediterranean coast of modern Lebanon, prosperous commercial centers were established at __, ______ and ______.
Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos
The _____, which means "purple people", were master _____ and their most valuable products were purple and blue ______.
Phoenicians, Shipbuilders, textiles
The Phoenicians introduced ______growing, which led to an increase in the amount of ___ that was available for consumption and trade.
In the 9th century BCE the Phoenicians founded the city of _______.
The Phoenicians overwhelming cultural achievement was the spread of a completely phonetic system of _________ - that was based on an ______.
The Phoenician alphabet vastly simplified ____ & _______ and spread among the common people as a practical means of __________ and _________.
reading and writing
record keeping and communication
IN 325 BCE, ___ conquered Egypt and in the process he brought elements of Greek civilization to Egypt.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great founded the city of ___ at the mouth of the Nile.
The mingling of Greek ideas with Middle Eastern ideas produced what came to be known as ___ culture.
Alexandria was the leading Hellenistic city and for a time had the largest ___ in the world.
After Alexander the Great, the next wave of civilization to influence Egypt was by the ___ Empire.
_____ first developed in Egypt.
monasticism (to be monk like - living in a monastery)
In the attempt to replace indigenous Egyptian religions with ____, many of the symbols of the indigenous religions were destroyed.
As was the case with Mesopotamia, in the 7th century, the religion of ___ became the dominant faith in Egypt.
Wood observes that organized ___ were created by elites who used the structure of organized religion to ___ the masses.
The explanation the organized religion was used to control the masses was popularized by Karl ___ in the 19th century.
Judaism, Christianity and Islam all reject this interpretation and claim to be religions based on ___
The film ends by contending that despite the efforts of Christianity and Islam to replace indigenous Egyptian religion, many Egyptians still worship the local ___.
The most recent archaeological activity involved the territory around the greatest of Egyptian pyramids where the tomb of an ___ (___ of the city)___ was opened.
Centuries after the pyramids were build the Greeks claimed the the pyramids were built by a ___army that numbered 100,000.
Examination of the bones of the workers in Egypt has revealed that the inhabitants of the area around the pyramids were about evenly divided between ___ and ___, and the remains of children have also been discovered.
male and female
There is indication the the people who built the pyramids were inhabitants of a worker's ___.
Experts point out that the notion of "___" work may have originated with the Egyptians because their skeletons bare witness to how physical the labor must have been.
The pyramids were built before the Egyptians knew about the ___ or ___.
The pyramids of Egypt were the tallest buildings in the world until the 20th century when the first ___ were built.
The workers would have needed to set a stone every two-three ___, seven ___ a week for three ___ in order to build a pyramid before the pharaoh died.
minutes, days, decades
The Egyptians had enough medical expertise to mend bones and perform basic ___, such as ___. It is doubtful that slaves would have received this type of medical care.
The diets of the workers included bread, beef and ___ from the Nile.
The Egyptians were fed like ___ athletes in a large "cafeteria"
It is now suggested that it took ___ workers to build a pyramid.
Graffiti left behind in the pyramids suggest that the workers worked in "gangs" known as ___.
The Egyptians had created the world's first ___ city.