Flashcards in Islam Deck (70)
Islam got its start in the city of ___ in what is now ___.
Mecca, Saudi Arabia
In 610 A.D. a merchant named ___ had a religious vision.
The speed in which ___ spread is one of the most amazing stories in ___ history.
Islam flourished in a mercantile ___ that generated a lot of wealth and a gracious, ___, and ___ culture developed, centered in the cities of Bagdad and ___.
Nomadic tribes who moved from place to place, grazing their sheep goats and camels
A temple containing a black stone thought to be a god's dwelling place
Muhammad was a merchant who gained wealth when he married a widow named___
When Muhammad was about the age of ___, near Mecca, he had a vision of and angelic being who commanded him to preach the revelations that God would be sending him.
Muhammad urged the people of Mecca to give up their ___ and submit to the one ___ God.
In 651 Muslims published a book known as the ___ and this became the sacred book of the religion of Islam.
Islam is a strict ___ faith.
The word Islam means___, and a person who submits is called a ___.
surrender to God,
According to the Qu'ran, ___is the last in a series of prophets that included Abraham, Moses and Jesus.
What are the 5 pillars of Islam
1. Profession of Faith
2. Pray 5 times a day
3. Observe Ramadan
4. Make Hajj
5. Zakat (alms)
When the people of Mecca turned against Muhammad, he and his followers moved to the city of ___ in 622 A.D This emigration is called the ___.
By 632 Muhammad had welded together all the ___ tribes.
Muhammad's consolidation of power created the sense of unified __ or community
Islam developed in a context in which the Byzantine Empire stood for ___ culture and championed ___ and in which the Sassanid Empire espoused ___cultural traditions and favored the religious faith known as ___.
When the Byzantine and Szassanid Empires came into conflict with each other the resulting disorder facilitated the growth of ___ states.
Islam spread to the north, east and west where in 711 A.D. Islamic forces defeated the Visigothic kingdom of ___ and controlled most of it until the 13th century
Islamic advances in to France were stopped in the year ___A.D. when the ___ defeated the Muslim invaders near the city of Tours
By the 11th century the crescent of Islam flew from the __ heartlands to norther ___.
A key concept that inspired the spread of Islam was the idea of a ___, or holy war, which is not precisely explained in the Qu'ran, an its exact meaning is greatly debated with somescholars claiming it refers to ___ struggle against sin, while other scholars claim it means a ___ against unbeliever.
Jihad, individual, holy
Given the context in which Islam developed, the Qu'ran sought to ___ the social position of women.
Modern scholars claim that the Islamic sacred book intended women as the ___ equals of men and gave them considerable ___ rights. However, this interpretation did not last and eventually the precepts of the Qu'ran were interpreted in more patriarchal ways.
Additional interpretations to the Qu'ran categorized ways in which ___ were superior to ___.
In present-day Muslim cultures, the veiling and ___ of women are sensitive issues.
By the year 800, ___ in more prosperous households stayed out of sight.
A Sunni aphorism states "there shall be no ___ in Islam" and Muslims came to believe that a sexually frustrated person is dangerous to the ___.
In Muslim society marriage is too important to be left to the ___ emotions of the young.
As to family life, a Muslim tradition asserts that "Paradise is at the ___ feet."
While Muslim law permits ___, it is easy to see that it is discouraged. The Qur'an permits a man to have ___ wives provided that all are treated justly.
In the period from 1000 - 1500 Islam looked favorably toward ___-making enterprises, which was not the case int the Christian West and Confucian East
The Islamic world made good use of waterways to trade deep into Russia and the city of ___ in Egypt.
___ became the major entry point for intercontinental trade.
The business practices of the Islamic world included use of the sakk, and Arabic word that is the root of the English word ___, and use of a bill of ___ and the idea of a joint-___company.
The medieval Muslim economy had ___ features
A sophisticated culture was developing in the cities of the Muslim world, and the cities of ___ and ___.
As a result of Muslim creativity and vitality, modern scholars consider about 900 to 1300 one of the most ___ periods in the world's history.
By the late 10th century, Muslims came to view a Christian, however much assimilated as an unbeliever, and the word carried a ___ connotation.
A Muslim who converted to Christianity immediately incurred a sentence of ___.
On the other hand, European's perceptions of Islam as a ___ helped inspire the ___ of the 11th - 13th centuries
Medieval attitudes toward Islam deteriorated to the point that Christian literature portrayed Muslims as the most dreadful of Europe's ___, and Dante consigned Muhammad to the ninth circle of hell as a spreader of ___ and ___.
enemies, discord, scandal
Today nearly ___% of the world's population proclaims the religion of Islam, and it is a dominant religion on ___ continents.
In the West there is a lot of ___ and ___ toward Islam, but it is also true that Islamic scholars kept the learning of the ___ civilizations alive while Europe suffered through the so-called ___.
Muhammad was born in ___ A.D. and spent his early life in the city of ___.
At the age of 6 he was ___, which probably made him sympathetic to outsiders.
He was born into the context of ___ society, which featured an ___ culture, and a lot of ___ between tribes, especially over access to ___.
Each tribal faction had its own ___.
In Mecca, the ___ was a sacred location where various idols wee venerated. Tradition claimed it was built by ___ the original prophet of the Hebrew Old Testament.
When tribes approached the Ka'bah they laid down their ___.
Mecca was a key cultural and economic center and served as the connection between the Mediterranean ___ and the ___ Ocean, linking ___ and ___ to ___ and ___.
When Muhammad was 25 years old a wealthy widow name ___ proposed marriage. This relationship enabled Muhammad to become a successful merchant and the making of ___ was always respected in subsequent Muslim culture.
Muhammad gained a reputation as "The ___ One" as he often meditated disputes.
When Muhammad was about ___ years old he had a vision and his prophetic career got started.
Muhammad's message: Give you your ___ because there is only ___ God. This social implication was radical: one God meant one ___, so all tribal division had to end.
idols, one, peopler
Muhammad's prophetic message was linked to social ___, and the notion of the ___ of all.
Those who accepted the message were called ___, meaning those who have surrendered to God.
Around 650 A.D., Muslims decided that Muhammad's teaching must be written down and the result was the ___.
Muslims rejected the use of ___ or images to depict God, and when asked about Muhammad's miracles responded by claiming that the Qur'an was the ___.
In 619 A.D., Muhammad's ___and ___died and he and his followers were being pressured out of Mecca.
In 622 A.D. Muhammad and his band of followers traveled to another city, and this is known as the ___.
As Muhammad gained stature the city became known as ___, the city of the prophet.
As a religion, Islam respects Judaism and Christianity as people of the ___ with Muhammad as the last ___ in tradition that goes back to Abraham and includes Jesus.
A revelation called for prater toward the ____
The conflict between Mecca and Medina featured ___ bloody battles and __ years of war. Eventually the Muslims had ___ troops poised to conquer Mecca. Muhammad's forces broke with tradition when they did not exact ___ but instead they destroyed the old ___ of the various ___ tribes.
Within ___ years a major Islamic ___ was in place, and within ___ years it controlled an area from ___ in the West to ___ in the East including ___ of the Byzantine Empire.
Reasons for Islam's rapid advance included discontentment with the ___ that the conquered peoples had been living in, and the amount of ___ that was granted to conquered peoples.
Islam was free of ___, and this was attractive to people who felt that the Christian clergy were becoming corrupt and abusing their power and influence.