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Flashcards in Islam Deck (70)
1

Islam got its start in the city of ___ in what is now ___.

Mecca, Saudi Arabia

2

In 610 A.D. a merchant named ___ had a religious vision.

Mohammad

3

The speed in which ___ spread is one of the most amazing stories in ___ history.

Islam, World

4

Islam flourished in a mercantile ___ that generated a lot of wealth and a gracious, ___, and ___ culture developed, centered in the cities of Bagdad and ___.

milieu,
sophisticated, cosmopolitan
Cordoba

5

Bedouin

Nomadic tribes who moved from place to place, grazing their sheep goats and camels

6

Kaba

A temple containing a black stone thought to be a god's dwelling place

7

Muhammad was a merchant who gained wealth when he married a widow named___

Khadija

8

When Muhammad was about the age of ___, near Mecca, he had a vision of and angelic being who commanded him to preach the revelations that God would be sending him.

40

9

Muhammad urged the people of Mecca to give up their ___ and submit to the one ___ God.

idols, invisible

10

In 651 Muslims published a book known as the ___ and this became the sacred book of the religion of Islam.

Qu'ran

11

Islam is a strict ___ faith.

monotheistic

12

The word Islam means___, and a person who submits is called a ___.

surrender to God,
Muslim

13

According to the Qu'ran, ___is the last in a series of prophets that included Abraham, Moses and Jesus.

Muhammad

14

What are the 5 pillars of Islam

1. Profession of Faith
2. Pray 5 times a day
3. Observe Ramadan
4. Make Hajj
5. Zakat (alms)

15

When the people of Mecca turned against Muhammad, he and his followers moved to the city of ___ in 622 A.D This emigration is called the ___.

Medina
Hijra

16

By 632 Muhammad had welded together all the ___ tribes.

Bedouin

17

Muhammad's consolidation of power created the sense of unified __ or community

umma

18

Islam developed in a context in which the Byzantine Empire stood for ___ culture and championed ___ and in which the Sassanid Empire espoused ___cultural traditions and favored the religious faith known as ___.

Hellenistic
Christianity
Persian
Zoroastrianism.

19

When the Byzantine and Szassanid Empires came into conflict with each other the resulting disorder facilitated the growth of ___ states.

Muslim

20

Islam spread to the north, east and west where in 711 A.D. Islamic forces defeated the Visigothic kingdom of ___ and controlled most of it until the 13th century

Spain

21

Islamic advances in to France were stopped in the year ___A.D. when the ___ defeated the Muslim invaders near the city of Tours

7321, Franks

22

By the 11th century the crescent of Islam flew from the __ heartlands to norther ___.

Iberian, India

23

A key concept that inspired the spread of Islam was the idea of a ___, or holy war, which is not precisely explained in the Qu'ran, an its exact meaning is greatly debated with somescholars claiming it refers to ___ struggle against sin, while other scholars claim it means a ___ against unbeliever.

Jihad, individual, holy

24

Given the context in which Islam developed, the Qu'ran sought to ___ the social position of women.

improve

25

Modern scholars claim that the Islamic sacred book intended women as the ___ equals of men and gave them considerable ___ rights. However, this interpretation did not last and eventually the precepts of the Qu'ran were interpreted in more patriarchal ways.

spiritual, economical

26

Additional interpretations to the Qu'ran categorized ways in which ___ were superior to ___.

men, women

27

In present-day Muslim cultures, the veiling and ___ of women are sensitive issues.

seclusion

28

By the year 800, ___ in more prosperous households stayed out of sight.

women

29

A Sunni aphorism states "there shall be no ___ in Islam" and Muslims came to believe that a sexually frustrated person is dangerous to the ___.

monkery, community

30

In Muslim society marriage is too important to be left to the ___ emotions of the young.

romantic

31

As to family life, a Muslim tradition asserts that "Paradise is at the ___ feet."

Mother's

32

While Muslim law permits ___, it is easy to see that it is discouraged. The Qur'an permits a man to have ___ wives provided that all are treated justly.

divorce, four

33

In the period from 1000 - 1500 Islam looked favorably toward ___-making enterprises, which was not the case int the Christian West and Confucian East

profit

34

The Islamic world made good use of waterways to trade deep into Russia and the city of ___ in Egypt.

Cairo

35

___ became the major entry point for intercontinental trade.

Egypt

36

The business practices of the Islamic world included use of the sakk, and Arabic word that is the root of the English word ___, and use of a bill of ___ and the idea of a joint-___company.

check
exchange
stock

37

The medieval Muslim economy had ___ features

capitalistic

38

A sophisticated culture was developing in the cities of the Muslim world, and the cities of ___ and ___.

Baghdad, Cordoba

39

As a result of Muslim creativity and vitality, modern scholars consider about 900 to 1300 one of the most ___ periods in the world's history.

brilliant

40

By the late 10th century, Muslims came to view a Christian, however much assimilated as an unbeliever, and the word carried a ___ connotation.

perjorative

41

A Muslim who converted to Christianity immediately incurred a sentence of ___.

death

42

On the other hand, European's perceptions of Islam as a ___ helped inspire the ___ of the 11th - 13th centuries

menace, Crusades

43

Medieval attitudes toward Islam deteriorated to the point that Christian literature portrayed Muslims as the most dreadful of Europe's ___, and Dante consigned Muhammad to the ninth circle of hell as a spreader of ___ and ___.

enemies, discord, scandal

44

Today nearly ___% of the world's population proclaims the religion of Islam, and it is a dominant religion on ___ continents.

25, 3

45

In the West there is a lot of ___ and ___ toward Islam, but it is also true that Islamic scholars kept the learning of the ___ civilizations alive while Europe suffered through the so-called ___.

fear, misunderstanding,
ancient,
dark ages

46

Muhammad was born in ___ A.D. and spent his early life in the city of ___.

570, Mecca

47

At the age of 6 he was ___, which probably made him sympathetic to outsiders.

orphaned

48

He was born into the context of ___ society, which featured an ___ culture, and a lot of ___ between tribes, especially over access to ___.

tribal
oral
warfare
water

49

Each tribal faction had its own ___.

gods

50

In Mecca, the ___ was a sacred location where various idols wee venerated. Tradition claimed it was built by ___ the original prophet of the Hebrew Old Testament.

Ka'bah, Abraham

51

When tribes approached the Ka'bah they laid down their ___.

weapons

52

Mecca was a key cultural and economic center and served as the connection between the Mediterranean ___ and the ___ Ocean, linking ___ and ___ to ___ and ___.

Sea
Indian
Byzantium
Persia
India
China

53

When Muhammad was 25 years old a wealthy widow name ___ proposed marriage. This relationship enabled Muhammad to become a successful merchant and the making of ___ was always respected in subsequent Muslim culture.

Khadija, profits

54

Muhammad gained a reputation as "The ___ One" as he often meditated disputes.

Trusted

55

When Muhammad was about ___ years old he had a vision and his prophetic career got started.

40

56

Muhammad's message: Give you your ___ because there is only ___ God. This social implication was radical: one God meant one ___, so all tribal division had to end.

idols, one, peopler

57

Muhammad's prophetic message was linked to social ___, and the notion of the ___ of all.

justia, equality

58

Those who accepted the message were called ___, meaning those who have surrendered to God.

Muslims

59

Around 650 A.D., Muslims decided that Muhammad's teaching must be written down and the result was the ___.

Qur'an

60

Muslims rejected the use of ___ or images to depict God, and when asked about Muhammad's miracles responded by claiming that the Qur'an was the ___.

sculpture, miracle

61

In 619 A.D., Muhammad's ___and ___died and he and his followers were being pressured out of Mecca.

Wife, uncle

62

In 622 A.D. Muhammad and his band of followers traveled to another city, and this is known as the ___.

Hijrah

63

As Muhammad gained stature the city became known as ___, the city of the prophet.

Medina

64

As a religion, Islam respects Judaism and Christianity as people of the ___ with Muhammad as the last ___ in tradition that goes back to Abraham and includes Jesus.

book, prophet

65

A revelation called for prater toward the ____

Ka'bah

66

The conflict between Mecca and Medina featured ___ bloody battles and __ years of war. Eventually the Muslims had ___ troops poised to conquer Mecca. Muhammad's forces broke with tradition when they did not exact ___ but instead they destroyed the old ___ of the various ___ tribes.

3, 3
10,000
revenge
idols
bedouin

67

Within ___ years a major Islamic ___ was in place, and within ___ years it controlled an area from ___ in the West to ___ in the East including ___ of the Byzantine Empire.

50, empire
200
Spain, China
2/3

68

Reasons for Islam's rapid advance included discontentment with the ___ that the conquered peoples had been living in, and the amount of ___ that was granted to conquered peoples.

freedom, regimes

69

Islam was free of ___, and this was attractive to people who felt that the Christian clergy were becoming corrupt and abusing their power and influence.

clergy

70

The Islamic Empire also offered ___ in a vacuum created when the ___ had collapsed.

solidarity, Roman Empire