Flashcards in Greeks/Athens Deck (113)
The ancient Greek developed a culture that shaped the ___ part Eurasia/
The Greeks used logic and empirical ___ to develop ways of understanding the world around them that grew into modern ___ and ___.
During the Hellenic period they developed a distinctive form of city-state known as the ___.
Macedonian and Greek armies defeated the ___ Empire and spread Greek ideas as far as ___.
The southern peninsula of Greece is called the ___ and this peninsula and the islands that surround it are part of the ___ basin.
The ___ fragmentation of Greece encouraged ___ fragmentation.
On the large island of ___, the largest settlement was located at ___.
Crete;Southern Aegean Sea/Greece
The civilization on the largest island in Greece was named ___ after the mythical king of Crete,____.
By 1650 BCE, a powerful kingdom was formed in the Peloponnese that established cities at ___, ___ and ___.
The archaeologists called this culture ___
Thebes, Athens An Mycenae
Around 1450 BCE, the Mycenaean attacked ___ and eventually wars destroyed Minoan and Mycenaean cultures.
Around the "Dark Ages" of Greece two epic poems, the ___ and ___ were written and attributed to _________.
Iliad, Odyssey, Homer
During the Archaic Age, the most important change in this period was the development of the ___ a word generally translated as ___
___ was a new type of political structure, and two distinctive types of government emerged in ___ and ___.
Polis, Athens, Sparta
In what sense was the polis more than a political institution and how did its small size impact the Greeks?
1) Community of citizens with their own customs and laws
2) Smallness enabled Greeks to see how they fit individually into the overall system
3) Individual parts made up the social whole
Elevated area where the people erected temples, altars, public monuments and various dedications to the gods of the polis.
Public square or market place where there were porticoes, shops, public buildings, and courts.
Heavily armed citizens who served as infantrymen and fought to defend the polis
Democracy translates as "the power of the ___" but in the Greek city-states it was actually rule by ___, not the people as a whole.
Women were ___ for religious and reproductive purposes, but it did not give them the right to participate in ___. This was by no means a modern democracy and the Greeks did not believe that all people are created___.
citizens, government, equal
Oligarchy literally means "the rule of the ___," and was government by a small group of wealthy citizens.
An increase in population created more demand for ___ than the land could supply, so adventurous Greeks sailed perhaps as far away as the ___ Islands.
Colonization changed the entire Greek ___ both home and abroad.
Sparta became the leading ___ power in Greece.
In Sparta every citizen owed primary allegiance to ___.
In Sparta, military training for males started at age ___ and most men were life-long ___.
Sparta mothers told their sons that went to war to either come back ___ carrying the shield, or ___ carried on it.
Instead of creating a state devoted to the ___, the Athenians created a state that became a ___.
In Athens, an aristocrat named Draco published a harsh law code, and today we label any harsh measures as ___.
Athenian democracy functioned on the ideal that all full ___ should play a role in the government (this excluded women and slaves), but was open to all ___ citizens over eighteen years of age.
Between 500 and 338 BCE Greek civilization reached its peak as it beat back the armies of the ___ Empire, but then self-destructed during the ___ War.
The Greeks defeated the Persians at the Battle of ___ and a runner delivered the news of the victory from the battlefield to Athens.
The Persians occupied Athens before the Greeks defeated their navy in the decisive Battle of ___
After defeating the Persians, the Athenians formed the ___League which they turned into an Athenian ___. ___ was the political leader of Athens at this time.
Delian, Empire, Pericles
For the next generation Athens and Sparta engaged in conflict known as the ___ War, which ended in the defeat of Athenian imperialism.
A historian named ___ wrote about the Persian Wars and a historian named ___ wrote about the Peloponnese Ware which he described as a __ day that would bring great evil to the Greeks.
Herodotus, Thucydides, day
Pericles turned Athens into the ___ of Greece.
Pericles created a building program for the Acropolis of Athens which was crowned by a temple known as the ___ which featured a huge statue of ___.
Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides are considered great writers of Greek ___.
Athenians ate what is now called the ___ Diet, slavery was ___, women rarely played notable roles in public ___,
Mediterranean, commonplace, affaris
Same-sex relations were common in all of ancient Greece, women were generally seen as ___ to men, and the word ___ is Greek in origin.
While the Greeks had myths and epics, some began to question and "sought ___ rather than ___ explanations for natural phenomena.'
The Pre-Socratics began an intellectual revolution that flourishes today, creating ___ and ___.
Describe contributions of Socrates
ethics, Socratic irony, Socratic method
Describe contributions of Plato
student of Socrates, philosophy, mathematics and science
Describe the contributions of Aristotle
contributed to almost every aspect of human knowledge
How does Aristotle justify slavery and what does he say about the relationship between men an women
The inferior need masters to guide and help them; it was the natural order of the universe
Aristotle wrote the ___ is a women's glory
Commenting on the influence of the Greeks, a British poet once remarked "___."
We are all Greeks
The Greeks are the first ___ civilization that we have encountered in this course, and so it is common for us to ___ the Greeks and the city of Athens as the cornerstone of ___.
European, idolize, democracy
In Washington, DC we have coped Greek architectural forms because we want to believe that they encouraged ___, ___, and freedom of ___.
liberty, democracy, speech
Historian Betanny Hughes refers to all of this as a ___ interpretation that has more to do with ___ than reality.
While Greeks achieved greatness on a grand scale, their society also featured:
3)imperialism which resulted in the Peloponnese civil wars => intolerance
Around 500 BCE ___ Empires dominated with ___ as the world's first superpower, while the Greeks lived in ___, such as __, __, ___.
Asian, Persia, city-sate; Athens, Sparta, Thebes
Athens was dominated by the ___, with the ___ below, which served as the market places.
Evidence of human life in Athens goes back ___ years
The Greeks ___ with the wider Mediterranean world, and colonized islands off the coast of present-day ___.
In Athens the word ___ was used to refer to those who abused political power.
Tyrants were thrown out of power by giving power to the ___, and so the first ___ was created.
In Greek, demos means ___ and kpatos means ___.
The Greek democracy was ___ rather than a representative democracy, with all free ___ casting votes
Aristotle would later say that democracy would only work in a setting in which ___ man can shout and be heard by ___
In Athens, ___ made up ___ of the population.
The combinations of non-voters included all slaves and ___ and there was also and age restriction.
SO ___% of those living in Athens could vote.
Women were considered ___ and required to wear ___.
On average, ___ men met to make all decisions.
The English translation of the Greek word for those who had political power and did not us it ___. In Greek the word for "politician" is ___.
The Greeks managed to defeat the Persians in the Battle of ___, but an orator names ___ now advised that Athens must command the ___, because the Persians would return
Marathon, Themistocles, seas
Over ___ ships were built, and each needed ___ oarsmen.,
The creation of the fleet shifted political power to the ___people of Athens
The sacred oracle of ___ was located 100 miles northwest of Athens in ___.
When asked what strategy should be used to defeat the Persians, the priestess made a reference to __ walls, which was interpreted to mean the ___.
IN 480 BCE, the Athenians evacuated to the island of ___, and the Persians Army sacked ___ and burned the temple on the ___.
Salamis, Athens, acropolis
The Athenians lured the Persian fleet into the ___ of Salamis, where they were outnumbered ___ to the Persian ships
strait, 2 -1
The Athenians won the Battle of ___ and the ___ wars.
Victory in the Persian wars became the underpinning of Athenian democracy, in this initial victory of western ___ over ___ tyranny. A line had been established between ___ and ___ and it still exists today.
democracy, eastern, west, east
The ___ League of Greek allies versus Persia was in formation but the Athenians soon dominated and engaged in "Democratic ___."
The need fir staple foods made from ___ and ___ drove Athenian imperialism, as evidenced by their conquest of the island known as ___.
wheat, barley, Eubeoa
___ was now the dominant orator in Athens.
The Greek historian ___ wrote that "Athens is in name a democracy, but it is actually under the rule of ___ man."
In 447 BCE, Pericles determined that surplus funds should be used to build the ___, which turned into a ___ year building project, engaging ___ workers. The current restoration effort will take ___ years.
Parthenon, 15, 200, 40
While we like to think of the Parthenon as a temple, it was used more like a ___. Critics of the Parthenon project noted that its extravagance would anger Athenian allies, but Pericles argued that the Parthenon would bring ___ to Athens for all time.
By 432 BCE, a totalitarian city-state called ___ went to war to liberate the rest of Greece from Athenian imperialism.
What we like to call the Golden Age of Greece was really the Age of ___.
In a famous funeral oration recorded by Thucydides, ___ referred to Athens as the ___ of all Greece.
In Civil War America, it was common for supporters of the Union to argue that as the Athenians fought off the Persians and preserved democracy, so the union was fighting the ___, in a 19th century effort to preserve democracy.
Despite the hyperbole used by Pericles, Athenian democracy was beginning to ___.
The Greeks were pushing the self-destruct button,, as the ___ Wars would weaken the Greeks, and pave the way for domination by ___.
Pericles was prepared to spend the modern day equivalent of one ___ dollars to build the Parthenon.
It would become the largest building ever constructed entirely of marble and it tool ___ tons of marble and ___ years to build.
Inside the Parthenon, Athenians would have been impressed by the __ foot high statue of ___ which was subsequently dismantled.
The Parthenon had ___ pillars and is the most copied building in the history of architecture
The Lincoln Memorial has __ pillars - one for each ___ in the ___ at the time of his presidency.
The Parthenon Frieze was ___ feet long and it surround the inner wall. It was designed as a celebration of Athenians at the height of the glory they had garnered by defeating the ___.
The Persians were viewed as the ___ of democracy.
The ancient civilizations may have believed that there were ___ standards of beauty that could be achieved through the use of mathematics and proportion, with the human body as the symbol of ____.
The notion of the human body symbolizing perfection was later referred to by a Roman architect named____.
__________ was the artist of the 'Vitruvian Man'
Socrates was no interested in nature, and turned his attention to the life of the ___.
A revolution in thinking had started in ___ where the first astronomers speculated about the heavens .
The documentary suggests that the Greeks took the gods out of heaven and replaced them with ___.
The Greeks argued that the universe is ___, and the human mind could understand the universe with the use of ___.
The Greek word for World
The Greeks would go on to make major contributions to ___, ___, and ___, with ___ as an early Greek thinker
science, math and logic, Socrates
Socrates now claimed it was time to apply reason and logic to the study of ___.
Socrates was not a writer, so we know about him because of his most famous pupil, ___.
The most famous quote attributed to Socrates
The unexamined life it not worth living
While Socrates was alive the Greeks had descended into a civil conflict known as the ___ Wars, during which ___ invaded and defeated Athens.
____ of Athenians died from plague including ___
Socrates is revered as a hero because he was a person of ___ rather than a warrior.
Athenians realized imperialism had gone too far, Plato explored the ___ society.
Aristotle "founded" ___ and zoology and Greek ideas slowly spread across the known world in an empire of ___.