Chpt 10 & 17 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chpt 10 & 17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt 10 & 17 Deck (306):
1

Microscopic fiber leading from the cell body that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell _____

axon

2

large, interlacing network of nerves ______

plexus

3

outer region of the largest part of the brain (cerebrum); composed of gray matter.

cerebral cortex

4

glial cell that transports water and salts between capillaries and nerve cells

astrocyte

5

glial cell that produces myelin

oligodendroglial cell

6

collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord at the level of the second lumbar vertebra _____

cauda equina

7

fatty tissue that surrounds the axon of a nerve cell ______

myelin sheath

8

dura mater (definition)

outermost meningeal layer surrounding the brain and spinal cord

9

CNS

brain and spinal cord

10

PNS

nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal and autonomic nerves.

11

arachnoid membrane

middle meningeal membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord

12

hypothalamus

part of the brain below the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temp and secretions from the pituitary gland.

13

synapse

space through which a nerve impulse is transmitted from a nerve cell to another nerve cell or to a muscle or gland cell.

14

sympathetic nerves

autonomic nerves that influence body functions involuntarily in terms of stress.

15

medulla oblongata

part of the brain just above the spinal cord that controls breathing, heartbeat and the size of blood vessels.

16

pons

part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and upper parts of the brain; connects these parts of the brain.

17

cerebellum

posterior part of the brain that controls muscular coordination and balance

18

thalamus

part of the brain below the cerebrum; relay center that conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum

19

ventricles of the brain

canals in the interior of the brain that are filled with CSF

20

brainstem

lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord (includes the pons and medulla)

21

cerebrum

largest part of the brain; controls voluntary muscle movement, vision, speech, hearing, thought, memory.

22

ganglion

collection of nerve cell bodies outside the brain and spinal cord.

23

pia mater

innermost meningeal membrane

24

motor nerves

carry messages away from (efferent) the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands

25

sensory nerves

carry messages toward (afferent) the brain and spinal cord from receptors

26

sulci

grooves in the cerebral cortex

27

subarachnoid space

contains CSF

28

gyri

elevations in the cerebral cortex

29

parenchymal cell

essential cell of the nervous system; a neuron

30

glial cells

connective and supportive (stromal) tissue

31

disease of the brain

encelopathy

32

epidural hematoma

collection of blood above the dura mater

33

leptomeningitis

inflammation of the pia and arachnoid membranes

34

anencelopathy

condition of absence of a brain

35

poliomyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord

36

meningeal

pertaining to the membranes around the brain and spinal cord

37

radiculopathy

disease of nerve roots (of spinal nerves)

38

myelomeningocele

hernia of the spinal cord and meninges

39

vagal

pertaining to the 10th cranial nerve

40

intrathecal

pertaining to within a sheath through the meninges and into the sub arachnoid space

41

meningioma

tumor of the meninges

42

glioma

tumor of the neuroglial cells (brain tumor)

43

subdural hematoma

mass of blood below the dura mater (outermost meningeal membrane)

44

dyslexia (definition)

reading disorder

45

ataxia (definition)

condition of decreased coordination

46

hyperesthesia

condition of increased sensation

47

narcolepsy

seizure of sleep; uncontrollable compulsion to sleep

48

aphasia

difficulty with speech

49

motor ataxia

inability to perform a task

50

hemoparesis

weakness in the right or left half of the body

51

causalgia

severe burning pain due to nerve injury

52

paraplegia

paralysis in the lower part of the body

53

fainting

syncope

54

neurasthenia

nervous exhaustion (lack of strength) and fatigue.

55

analgesia

lack of sensitivity to pain

56

motor aphasia

difficulty in speaking ( patient cannot articular words but can understand speech and knows what he/she wants to say)

57

paresis

weakness and partial loss of movement

58

quadriplegia

paralysis in all four extremities (damage is to the cervical part of the spinal cord)

59

asthenia

no strength (weakness)

60

comatose

pertaining to coma (loss of consciousness in which a patient cannot be aroused)

61

paresthesia

condition of abnormal sensations (prickling, tingling, burning)

62

hypalgesia

diminished sensation to pain

63

dyskinesia

impairment to the ability to perform voluntary movements

64

migraine

recurrent vascular headache with severe pain of unilateral onset and photobia (sensitivity to light)

65

multiple sclerosis

destruction of the myelin sheath (demyelination) and it's replacement by hard plaques

66

epilepsy

sudden, transient disturbances of brain function cause seizures

67

myelomeningocele (definition)

the spinal column is imperfectly joined (split vertebra occurs), and part of the meninges and spinal cord can herniate out of the spinal cavity.

68

amyotropic lateral sclerosis

atrophy of muscles and paralysis caused by damage to motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem.

69

Huntington disease

patient displays bizarre, abrupt, involuntary, dance-like movements, as well as decline in mental function

70

hydrocephalus

CSF accumulates in the head (in the ventricles of the brain)

71

Myesthenia gravis

loss of muscle strength due to the inability of a NT (Ach) to transmit impulses from nerve cells to muscle cells.

72

parkinson disease

Degeneration of nerves in the basal ganglia occurring in later life, leading to tremors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness; dopamine is deficient in the brain

73

Alzheimer disease

deterioration of mental capacity (dementia); autopsy shows cerebral cortex atrophy, widening of cerebral sulci, and microscopic neurofibrillary tangles.

74

astrocytoma

tumor of neurological glial brain cells (astrocytes)

75

pyogenic meningitis

inflammation of the meninges (bacterial infection with pus formation)

76

tourette syndrome

involuntary spasmotic twitching movements (tics), uncontrollable vocal sounds and inappropriate words

77

cerebral contusion

bruising of brain tissues as a result of a direct trauma to the head

78

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

disruption of normal blood supply to the brain ; stroke or cerebral infarction

79

cerebral concussion

traumatic brain injury caused by blow to the head

80

herpes zoster

neurologic condition caused by infection with herpes zoster virus; blisters form along the course of peripheral nerves.

81

cerebral embolus

blockage of a blood vessel in the cerebrum caused by material from another part of the body that suddenly occludes the vessel.

82

cerebral thrombosis

blockage of a blood vessel in the cerebrum caused by for formation of a clot in the vessel

83

cerebral hemorrhage

collection of blood in the brain (can cause a stroke

84

cerebral aneurysm

widening of a blood vessel (artery) in the cerebrum; can lead to burst and lead to CVA

85

HIV encephalopathy

brain disease (dimentia and encephalitis) caused by infection with AIDS virus

86

Describe what happens in an MRI of the brain

use of magnetic waves to create an image (in frontal, transverse or sagittal plane) of the brain.

87

Describe what happens in a stereotactic radiosurgery with a gamma knife

an instrument (stereotactic) is fixed onto the skill and locates a target by 3-D measurement; gamma radiation or proton beams are used to treat deep brain lesions.

88

lack of nerve strength

neurasthenia

89

inability to speak

aphasia

90

inability to perform purposeful actions

apraxia

91

condition of insensitivity to pain

analgesia

92

condition of loss of sensation

anesthesia

93

sensations of tingling, numbness, or "pins and needles"

paresthenia

94

lack of coordination

ataxia

95

excessive movement

hyperkinesia

96

abnormal, involuntary, spasmodic movements

dyskinesia

97

developmental reading disorder

dyslexia

98

partial paralysis

paresis

99

electroencephalography (EEG)

procedure to diagnose abnormal electrical activity of the brain

100

positron emission tomography (PET)

radioactive materials, such as glucose, are taken up by the brain, and images are recorded

101

Magnetic resonance imagine (MRI)

diagnostic procedure that allows excellent visualization of the soft tissue in the brain.

102

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

stroke; embolus, hemorrhage, or thrombosis

103

transient ischemic attack (TIA)

neurologic symptoms and/or signs due to temporary interference of blood supply to the brain

104

cerebralspinal fluid (CSF)

this fluid is analyzed for abnormal blood cells, chemicals and protein.

105

Maria had such severe headaches that she could find relief only with strong analgesics. Her condition of ______ was debilitating

migraine

106

Paul was in a come after his high-speef car accident. His physicians were concerned that he has suffered a (palsy, myelomenigocele, contusion and subdural hematoma)

contusion and subdural hematoma

107

Dick went to the emergency department complaining dizziness, nausea, and headache. The physician, suspecting increased ICP, prescribed corticosteroids, and Dick's symptoms disappeared. They returned, however, when the steroids were discontinued. A/an ______ revealed a large brain lesion. It was removed surgically and determined to be a/an (embolus, glioblastoma multiforme, migraine)

MRI, glioblastoma multiform

108

Dorothy felt weakness in her hands and numbness in her arm, and noticed blurred vision, all signs of ______ . Her physician requested ______ to assess any damage to the cerebral blood vessels and possible stroke.

TIA, MRA

109

To rule out bacterial (epilepsy, encephalomalacia, meningitis), Dr. Phillips, a pediatrician, requested that a/an (EEG, PET scan, LP) be performed on the febrile (feverish) child.

meningitis, LP

110

part of the brain that controls sleep, appetite, temperature, and secretions of the pituitary gland.

hypothalamus

111

pertaining to fainting

syncopal

112

abnormal tingling sensations

esthesias

113

slight paralysis

paresis

114

inflammation of a spinal nerve root

radiculitis

115

inability to speak correctly

aphasia

116

movements and behavior that are not purposeful

apraxia

117

lack of muscular coordination

ataxia

118

paralysis on half the body

hemiplegia

119

paralysis in lower half of the body

paraplegia

120

paralysis in all four limbs

quadriplegia

121

nervous exhaustion and fatigue

neurasthenia

122

phacoemulsification with IOL; OS is procedure for

IOL = intraocular lens
OS- = left eye
cataracts

123

blepharoplasty is the procedure for

ptosis of the eyelid skin

124

sclera buckle is the procedure for

retinal detachment

125

vitrectomy is the procedure for

diabetic retinoplasty

126

radical mastoidectomy is the procedure for

chronic infection of a bone behind the ear

127

keratoplasty is the procedure for

scarred and torn cornea

128

cochlear implant is the procedure for

severe deafness

129

laser photocoagulation of the macula is the procedure for

macular degeneration

130

incision and drainage of hordeolum is the procedure for

chronic stye

131

conjunctiva

Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior of the eyeball

132

cornea

Fibrous layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball

133

sclera

Tough, white outer layer of the eyeball

134

choroid

Vascular layer of the eyeball that is continuous with the iris

135

ciliary body

Contains muscles that control the shape of the lens and secrete aqueous humor

136

lens

transparent structure behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor; it refracts light rays onto the retina.
also biconvex

137

retina

contains sensitive cells called rods and cones that transform light energy into nerve impulses.

138

vitreous humor

jelly-like material behind the lens that helps maintain the shape of the eyeball

139

The region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina is the ______

optic disc

140

The normal adjustment of the lens (becoming fatter) to bring an object into focus for near vision on the retina is ______

accommodation

141

a yellowish region on the retina lateral to the optic disc is the ______

macula

142

The tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision is the ______

fovea centralis

143

the bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eyes is ______

refraction

144

The point at which the fibers of the optic nerve cross the brain is the ______

optic chiasm

145

The ______ is the area behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris. It contains the aqueous humor.

anterior chamber

146

The posterior, inner part of the eye is the ______

fundus

147

space and fluid in front of the eye

anterior chamber and aqueous humor

148

space and soft, jelly-like material in the posterior of the eye

vitreous chamber and vitreous humor

149

retina

light-sensitive inner nerve cell layer; rods and cones

150

optic nerve fibers

cranial nerve

151

relay center of the brain

thalamus

152

visual region of the brain

cerebral cortex (occipital lobe)

153

anisocoria

condition of pupils of unequal size (anis/o = unequal)

154

cycloplegic

pertaining to paralysis of the ciliary muscles

155

palpebral

pertaining to the eyelid

156

mydriasis

condition of enlargement of the pupil

157

miosis

condition of constriction of the pupil

158

papilledema

swelling in the region of the optic disc

159

photobia

condition of sensitivity ("fear of") light

160

scotoma

blind spot; area of darkened (diminished) vision surrounded by clear vision.

161

inflammation of an eyelid

blepharitis

162

inflammation of a tear gland

dacryadenitis

163

inflammation of the cornea

keratitis

164

prolapse of the eyelid

blepharoptosis

165

pertaining to within the eye

intraocular

166

fibrous layer of clear tissue over the front of the eyeball has a defect resulting from infection

corneal ulcer

167

inflammation of the vascular layer of the eye (iris, ciliary body, and choriod)

uveitis

168

condition of dry eyes

xerophthalmia

169

absence of vision in half of the visual field

hemianopsia

170

absence of the lens of the eye

aphakia

171

amblyopia

decreased (dim) vision; lazy eye

172

hyperopia

farsightedness

173

presbyopia

decreased vision at near; resulting from old age

174

myopia

nearsightedness

175

nyctalopia

night blindness; decreased vision at night

176

diplopia

double vision

177

astigmatism

defective curvature of the lens and cornea leading to blurred vision

178

In the myopic eye either the eyeball is too ______ or the refractive power of the lens is too ______ , so that the image is blurred and comes to a focus in ______ of the retina. They type of lens used to correct this is a/an ______ lens.

long, strong, front, concave

179

In the hyperopic eye, the eyeball is too ______ or the refractive power of the lens is too ______ , so that the image is blurred and focused in ______ of the retina. They type of lens used to correct this is a/an ______ lens.

short, weak, back, convex

180

retinal microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, ad neovascularization occur secondary to an abnormal endocrine condition

diabetic retinopathy

181

2 layers of the retina separate from each other

retinal detachment

182

clouding of the lens caused by decreased vision

cataract

183

loss of central vision caused by deterioration of the macula of the retina

macular degeneration

184

localized, purulent infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid

hordeolum (stye)

185

small, firm, cystic mass on the eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of a sebaceous gland

chalazion

186

pigmented scarring forms throughout the retina

retinitis pigmentosa

187

repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes

nystagmus

188

dacry/o

tears

189

kerat/o

cornea

190

palpebr/o

eyelid

191

cor/o

pupil

192

phac/o

lens

193

phak/o

lens

194

scot/o

darkness

195

OU

both eyes

196

VA

visual acuity

197

VF

visual field

198

IOL

intraocular lens

199

IOP

intraocular pressure

200

PERRLA

pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation

201

ultrasonic vibrations break up the lens, and it is aspirated from the eye

phacoemulsification

202

measurement of the tension or pressure within the eye; glaucome test

tonometry

203

high-energy light radiation beams are used to stop retinal hemorrhaging

laser photocoagulation

204

a laser removes corneal tissue (sculpts it) to correct myopia

LASIK

205

a structure of a silicone band to the sclera to correct retinal detachment

scleral buckle

206

removal (and replacement) of diseased fluid in the chamber behind the lens of the eye

vitrectomy

207

corneal transplant surgery

keratoplasty

208

labyrinth

cochlea and organs of equilibrium (semicircular canals and vestibule)

209

semicircular canals

organ of equilibrium in the inner ear

210

auditory (eustachian) tube

passageway between the middle ear and the throat

211

stapes

3rd ossicle (little bone) of the middle ear

212

organ of Corti

region of the cochlea that contains the auditory receptors

213

perilymph & endolymph

auditory fluids circulating within the inner ear

214

cerumen

wax in the external auditory meatus

215

vestibule

central cavity of the inner ear that connect the semicircular canals and the cochlea

216

oval window

delicate membrane between the middle and inner ears

217

tympanic membrane

eardrum

218

instrument to examine the ear

otoscope

219

removal of the 3rd bone of the middle ear

stapedectomy

220

pertaining to the auditory tube and throat

salpingopharyngeal

221

flow of pus from the ear

otopyorrhea

222

instrument to measure hearing

audiometer

223

incision of the eardrum

myringotomy (tympanotomy)

224

surgical repair of the eardrum

myringoplasty (tympanoplasty)

225

small ear

microtia

226

inflammation of the middle ear

otitis media

227

vertigo

sensation of irregular or whirling motion either of oneself or external objects

228

Meniere disease

disorder of the labyrinth marked by elevation of ear fluids and pressure with the cochlea (tinnitus, vertigo and nausea result)

229

otosclerosis

hardening of the bony tissue of the ossicles of the middle ear

230

tinnitus

noise (buzzing and ringing) in the ears

231

cholesteatoma

collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac with in the middle of the ear.

232

suppurative otitis media

inflammation of the middle ear with bacterial infection and pus collection.

233

acoustic neuroma

benign tumor arising from the acoustic nerve in the brain

234

AS

left ear

235

AD

right eat

236

ENG

electronystagmography; a test of balance

237

EENT

ears, eyes, nose , throat

238

ENT

ears, nose, throat

239

PE tube

pressure-equlalizing tube; ventilating tube placed in the ear drum.

240

before her second birthday, Sally had so many episodes of (vertigo, otosclerosis, suppurative otitis media) that Dr. Sills recommended the placement of PE tubes

suppurative otitis media

241

68 year old Bob experienced blurred vision in the central portion of his visual field. After exam of his (cornea, retina, sclera) his ________ diagnosed his condition as (glaucma, iritis, macular degeneration). The doctor explained that the form of this condition was atrophic or (dry, wet), causing photoreceptor rods and cones to die.

retina, ophthalmologist, macular degeneration, dry

242

cerebellopontine

pertaining to the pons and cerebellum

243

coma

deep sleep

244

comatose

pertaining to deep sleep

245

ependymal cell

glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and help form CSF

246

absence seizure

seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings

247

stroma

connective and supporting tissue of an organ. The glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.

248

aura

prodromal symptoms. peculiar symptoms that precede onset of an epileptic seizure or migraine

249

cerebral palsy

paralysis caused by loss of oxygen (hypoxia) or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or prenatal period.

250

computed tomography (CT)

computerized x-ray technique that generates multiple imaged of the brain and spinal cord. Contrast material may be injected to highlight abnormalities and that contrast leaks through the BBB.

251

doppler ultrasound studies

sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries.

252

embolus

clot of material that travels through the blood stream and suddenly blocks a vessel.

253

ictal event

pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as with the convulsions of an epileptic seizure

254

palliative

relieving symptoms but not curing them

255

palsy

paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)

256

positron emission tomography (PET) scan

radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells

257

spina bifida

congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect). Basically lumbar vertebrae don't form correctly.

258

tonic-clonic seizure

major convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching jerking movements.

259

comat/o

deep sleep (coma)

260

cry/o

cold

261

lex/o

word/phrase

262

olig/o

scanty

263

pont/o

pons

264

spin/o

spine

265

syncop/o

to cut off/ to cut short

266

tax/o

order/ coordination

267

thec/o

sheath (refers to the meninges)

268

para-

near/ beside

269

-ose

full of/ pertaining to

270

glioblastoma multiforme

brain tumor; malignant astrocytoma

271

cerebral angiography

X-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast material

272

tuning fork test

test of ear conduction using a vibration source (tuning fork)

273

acous/o

hearing

274

ambly/o

dull/ dim

275

audi/o

hearing (the sense of hearing)

276

audit/o

hearing

277

aur/o

ear

278

auricul/o

hearing

279

glauc/o

gray

280

AFP

alpha feto protein

281

AVM

arteriovenous malformation

282

CT

computer tomography

283

EEG

electroencephalography

284

MRA

magnetic resonance angiography

285

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

286

PET

positron emission tomography

287

TBI

traumatic brain injury

288

TIA

transient ischemic attack

289

tPA

tissue plasminogen activator

290

mi/o

smaller; less

291

mydr/o

widen/ enlarge

292

phot/o

light

293

salping/o

eustachian tube, auditary tube

294

scler/o

sclera, hard

295

-acusis

hearing

296

-cusis

hearing

297

-opia

vision

298

-opsia

vision

299

drunsen

extracellular debris

300

extropion

outward sagging and eversion of the eyelid, leading to improper lacrimation and corneal drying and ulceration

301

entropion

outward sagging of the eyelid, causing lashed to rub against the eye, corneal abrasion may result

302

enucleation

removal of a entire eyeball

303

exudates

fluid leaking from the blood. appear in retina as yellow-white spots as a result of diabetes

304

floaters

black spots or filmy shapes. people with retinal detachment experience this

305

photopsia

brights flashed of light. people with retinal detachment often experience this

306

xanthelasma

raised yellowish plaque on eyelid caused by lipid disorder