Flashcards in Chpt 10 & 17 Deck (306):
Microscopic fiber leading from the cell body that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell _____
large, interlacing network of nerves ______
outer region of the largest part of the brain (cerebrum); composed of gray matter.
glial cell that transports water and salts between capillaries and nerve cells
glial cell that produces myelin
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord at the level of the second lumbar vertebra _____
fatty tissue that surrounds the axon of a nerve cell ______
dura mater (definition)
outermost meningeal layer surrounding the brain and spinal cord
brain and spinal cord
nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal and autonomic nerves.
middle meningeal membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord
part of the brain below the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temp and secretions from the pituitary gland.
space through which a nerve impulse is transmitted from a nerve cell to another nerve cell or to a muscle or gland cell.
autonomic nerves that influence body functions involuntarily in terms of stress.
part of the brain just above the spinal cord that controls breathing, heartbeat and the size of blood vessels.
part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and upper parts of the brain; connects these parts of the brain.
posterior part of the brain that controls muscular coordination and balance
part of the brain below the cerebrum; relay center that conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum
ventricles of the brain
canals in the interior of the brain that are filled with CSF
lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord (includes the pons and medulla)
largest part of the brain; controls voluntary muscle movement, vision, speech, hearing, thought, memory.
collection of nerve cell bodies outside the brain and spinal cord.
innermost meningeal membrane
carry messages away from (efferent) the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands
carry messages toward (afferent) the brain and spinal cord from receptors
grooves in the cerebral cortex
elevations in the cerebral cortex
essential cell of the nervous system; a neuron
connective and supportive (stromal) tissue
disease of the brain
collection of blood above the dura mater
inflammation of the pia and arachnoid membranes
condition of absence of a brain
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
pertaining to the membranes around the brain and spinal cord
disease of nerve roots (of spinal nerves)
hernia of the spinal cord and meninges
pertaining to the 10th cranial nerve
pertaining to within a sheath through the meninges and into the sub arachnoid space
tumor of the meninges
tumor of the neuroglial cells (brain tumor)
mass of blood below the dura mater (outermost meningeal membrane)
condition of decreased coordination
condition of increased sensation
seizure of sleep; uncontrollable compulsion to sleep
difficulty with speech
inability to perform a task
weakness in the right or left half of the body
severe burning pain due to nerve injury
paralysis in the lower part of the body
nervous exhaustion (lack of strength) and fatigue.
lack of sensitivity to pain
difficulty in speaking ( patient cannot articular words but can understand speech and knows what he/she wants to say)
weakness and partial loss of movement
paralysis in all four extremities (damage is to the cervical part of the spinal cord)
no strength (weakness)
pertaining to coma (loss of consciousness in which a patient cannot be aroused)
condition of abnormal sensations (prickling, tingling, burning)
diminished sensation to pain
impairment to the ability to perform voluntary movements
recurrent vascular headache with severe pain of unilateral onset and photobia (sensitivity to light)
destruction of the myelin sheath (demyelination) and it's replacement by hard plaques
sudden, transient disturbances of brain function cause seizures
the spinal column is imperfectly joined (split vertebra occurs), and part of the meninges and spinal cord can herniate out of the spinal cavity.
amyotropic lateral sclerosis
atrophy of muscles and paralysis caused by damage to motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem.
patient displays bizarre, abrupt, involuntary, dance-like movements, as well as decline in mental function
CSF accumulates in the head (in the ventricles of the brain)
loss of muscle strength due to the inability of a NT (Ach) to transmit impulses from nerve cells to muscle cells.
Degeneration of nerves in the basal ganglia occurring in later life, leading to tremors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness; dopamine is deficient in the brain
deterioration of mental capacity (dementia); autopsy shows cerebral cortex atrophy, widening of cerebral sulci, and microscopic neurofibrillary tangles.
tumor of neurological glial brain cells (astrocytes)
inflammation of the meninges (bacterial infection with pus formation)
involuntary spasmotic twitching movements (tics), uncontrollable vocal sounds and inappropriate words
bruising of brain tissues as a result of a direct trauma to the head
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
disruption of normal blood supply to the brain ; stroke or cerebral infarction
traumatic brain injury caused by blow to the head
neurologic condition caused by infection with herpes zoster virus; blisters form along the course of peripheral nerves.
blockage of a blood vessel in the cerebrum caused by material from another part of the body that suddenly occludes the vessel.
blockage of a blood vessel in the cerebrum caused by for formation of a clot in the vessel
collection of blood in the brain (can cause a stroke
widening of a blood vessel (artery) in the cerebrum; can lead to burst and lead to CVA
brain disease (dimentia and encephalitis) caused by infection with AIDS virus
Describe what happens in an MRI of the brain
use of magnetic waves to create an image (in frontal, transverse or sagittal plane) of the brain.
Describe what happens in a stereotactic radiosurgery with a gamma knife
an instrument (stereotactic) is fixed onto the skill and locates a target by 3-D measurement; gamma radiation or proton beams are used to treat deep brain lesions.
lack of nerve strength
inability to speak
inability to perform purposeful actions
condition of insensitivity to pain
condition of loss of sensation
sensations of tingling, numbness, or "pins and needles"
lack of coordination
abnormal, involuntary, spasmodic movements
developmental reading disorder
procedure to diagnose abnormal electrical activity of the brain
positron emission tomography (PET)
radioactive materials, such as glucose, are taken up by the brain, and images are recorded
Magnetic resonance imagine (MRI)
diagnostic procedure that allows excellent visualization of the soft tissue in the brain.
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
stroke; embolus, hemorrhage, or thrombosis
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
neurologic symptoms and/or signs due to temporary interference of blood supply to the brain
cerebralspinal fluid (CSF)
this fluid is analyzed for abnormal blood cells, chemicals and protein.
Maria had such severe headaches that she could find relief only with strong analgesics. Her condition of ______ was debilitating
Paul was in a come after his high-speef car accident. His physicians were concerned that he has suffered a (palsy, myelomenigocele, contusion and subdural hematoma)
contusion and subdural hematoma
Dick went to the emergency department complaining dizziness, nausea, and headache. The physician, suspecting increased ICP, prescribed corticosteroids, and Dick's symptoms disappeared. They returned, however, when the steroids were discontinued. A/an ______ revealed a large brain lesion. It was removed surgically and determined to be a/an (embolus, glioblastoma multiforme, migraine)
MRI, glioblastoma multiform
Dorothy felt weakness in her hands and numbness in her arm, and noticed blurred vision, all signs of ______ . Her physician requested ______ to assess any damage to the cerebral blood vessels and possible stroke.
To rule out bacterial (epilepsy, encephalomalacia, meningitis), Dr. Phillips, a pediatrician, requested that a/an (EEG, PET scan, LP) be performed on the febrile (feverish) child.
part of the brain that controls sleep, appetite, temperature, and secretions of the pituitary gland.
pertaining to fainting
abnormal tingling sensations
inflammation of a spinal nerve root
inability to speak correctly
movements and behavior that are not purposeful
lack of muscular coordination
paralysis on half the body
paralysis in lower half of the body
paralysis in all four limbs
nervous exhaustion and fatigue
phacoemulsification with IOL; OS is procedure for
IOL = intraocular lens
OS- = left eye
blepharoplasty is the procedure for
ptosis of the eyelid skin
sclera buckle is the procedure for
vitrectomy is the procedure for
radical mastoidectomy is the procedure for
chronic infection of a bone behind the ear
keratoplasty is the procedure for
scarred and torn cornea
cochlear implant is the procedure for
laser photocoagulation of the macula is the procedure for
incision and drainage of hordeolum is the procedure for
Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior of the eyeball
Fibrous layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball
Tough, white outer layer of the eyeball
Vascular layer of the eyeball that is continuous with the iris
Contains muscles that control the shape of the lens and secrete aqueous humor
transparent structure behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor; it refracts light rays onto the retina.
contains sensitive cells called rods and cones that transform light energy into nerve impulses.
jelly-like material behind the lens that helps maintain the shape of the eyeball
The region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina is the ______
The normal adjustment of the lens (becoming fatter) to bring an object into focus for near vision on the retina is ______
a yellowish region on the retina lateral to the optic disc is the ______
The tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision is the ______
the bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eyes is ______
The point at which the fibers of the optic nerve cross the brain is the ______
The ______ is the area behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris. It contains the aqueous humor.
The posterior, inner part of the eye is the ______
space and fluid in front of the eye
anterior chamber and aqueous humor
space and soft, jelly-like material in the posterior of the eye
vitreous chamber and vitreous humor
light-sensitive inner nerve cell layer; rods and cones
optic nerve fibers
relay center of the brain
visual region of the brain
cerebral cortex (occipital lobe)
condition of pupils of unequal size (anis/o = unequal)
pertaining to paralysis of the ciliary muscles
pertaining to the eyelid
condition of enlargement of the pupil
condition of constriction of the pupil
swelling in the region of the optic disc
condition of sensitivity ("fear of") light
blind spot; area of darkened (diminished) vision surrounded by clear vision.
inflammation of an eyelid
inflammation of a tear gland
inflammation of the cornea
prolapse of the eyelid
pertaining to within the eye
fibrous layer of clear tissue over the front of the eyeball has a defect resulting from infection
inflammation of the vascular layer of the eye (iris, ciliary body, and choriod)
condition of dry eyes
absence of vision in half of the visual field
absence of the lens of the eye
decreased (dim) vision; lazy eye
decreased vision at near; resulting from old age
night blindness; decreased vision at night
defective curvature of the lens and cornea leading to blurred vision
In the myopic eye either the eyeball is too ______ or the refractive power of the lens is too ______ , so that the image is blurred and comes to a focus in ______ of the retina. They type of lens used to correct this is a/an ______ lens.
long, strong, front, concave
In the hyperopic eye, the eyeball is too ______ or the refractive power of the lens is too ______ , so that the image is blurred and focused in ______ of the retina. They type of lens used to correct this is a/an ______ lens.
short, weak, back, convex
retinal microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, ad neovascularization occur secondary to an abnormal endocrine condition
2 layers of the retina separate from each other
clouding of the lens caused by decreased vision
loss of central vision caused by deterioration of the macula of the retina
localized, purulent infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid
small, firm, cystic mass on the eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of a sebaceous gland
pigmented scarring forms throughout the retina
repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes
pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation
ultrasonic vibrations break up the lens, and it is aspirated from the eye
measurement of the tension or pressure within the eye; glaucome test
high-energy light radiation beams are used to stop retinal hemorrhaging
a laser removes corneal tissue (sculpts it) to correct myopia
a structure of a silicone band to the sclera to correct retinal detachment
removal (and replacement) of diseased fluid in the chamber behind the lens of the eye
corneal transplant surgery
cochlea and organs of equilibrium (semicircular canals and vestibule)
organ of equilibrium in the inner ear
auditory (eustachian) tube
passageway between the middle ear and the throat
3rd ossicle (little bone) of the middle ear
organ of Corti
region of the cochlea that contains the auditory receptors
perilymph & endolymph
auditory fluids circulating within the inner ear
wax in the external auditory meatus
central cavity of the inner ear that connect the semicircular canals and the cochlea
delicate membrane between the middle and inner ears
instrument to examine the ear
removal of the 3rd bone of the middle ear
pertaining to the auditory tube and throat
flow of pus from the ear
instrument to measure hearing
incision of the eardrum
surgical repair of the eardrum
inflammation of the middle ear
sensation of irregular or whirling motion either of oneself or external objects
disorder of the labyrinth marked by elevation of ear fluids and pressure with the cochlea (tinnitus, vertigo and nausea result)
hardening of the bony tissue of the ossicles of the middle ear
noise (buzzing and ringing) in the ears
collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac with in the middle of the ear.
suppurative otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear with bacterial infection and pus collection.
benign tumor arising from the acoustic nerve in the brain
electronystagmography; a test of balance
ears, eyes, nose , throat
ears, nose, throat
pressure-equlalizing tube; ventilating tube placed in the ear drum.
before her second birthday, Sally had so many episodes of (vertigo, otosclerosis, suppurative otitis media) that Dr. Sills recommended the placement of PE tubes
suppurative otitis media
68 year old Bob experienced blurred vision in the central portion of his visual field. After exam of his (cornea, retina, sclera) his ________ diagnosed his condition as (glaucma, iritis, macular degeneration). The doctor explained that the form of this condition was atrophic or (dry, wet), causing photoreceptor rods and cones to die.
retina, ophthalmologist, macular degeneration, dry
pertaining to the pons and cerebellum
pertaining to deep sleep
glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and help form CSF
seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings
connective and supporting tissue of an organ. The glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.
prodromal symptoms. peculiar symptoms that precede onset of an epileptic seizure or migraine
paralysis caused by loss of oxygen (hypoxia) or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or prenatal period.
computed tomography (CT)
computerized x-ray technique that generates multiple imaged of the brain and spinal cord. Contrast material may be injected to highlight abnormalities and that contrast leaks through the BBB.
doppler ultrasound studies
sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries.
clot of material that travels through the blood stream and suddenly blocks a vessel.
pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as with the convulsions of an epileptic seizure
relieving symptoms but not curing them
paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)
positron emission tomography (PET) scan
radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells
congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect). Basically lumbar vertebrae don't form correctly.
major convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching jerking movements.
deep sleep (coma)
to cut off/ to cut short
sheath (refers to the meninges)
full of/ pertaining to
brain tumor; malignant astrocytoma
X-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast material
tuning fork test
test of ear conduction using a vibration source (tuning fork)
hearing (the sense of hearing)
alpha feto protein
magnetic resonance angiography
magnetic resonance imaging
positron emission tomography
traumatic brain injury
transient ischemic attack
tissue plasminogen activator
eustachian tube, auditary tube
outward sagging and eversion of the eyelid, leading to improper lacrimation and corneal drying and ulceration
outward sagging of the eyelid, causing lashed to rub against the eye, corneal abrasion may result
removal of a entire eyeball
fluid leaking from the blood. appear in retina as yellow-white spots as a result of diabetes
black spots or filmy shapes. people with retinal detachment experience this
brights flashed of light. people with retinal detachment often experience this