Chpt 5,6,7 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chpt 5,6,7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt 5,6,7 Deck (444):
1

an/o

anus

2

append/o

appendix

3

bucc/o

cheek

4

cec/o

cecum

5

celi/o

belly, abdomen
*also abdomin/o and lapar/o

6

peristalsis

Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs

7

cheil/o

lip
*also labi/o

8

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

9

chol/e

gall, bile
*also bili/o

10

choledoch/o

common bile duct

11

col/o

colon

12

-stomy

new opening

13

dent/i

tooth
*also odont/o

14

odont/o

tooth

15

duoden/o

duodenum

16

enter/o

small intestines

17

parenteral

par (from para-) = apart
pertaining to apart from the intestines

18

TPN

total parenteral nutrition

19

esophag/o

esophagus

20

fasci/o

face

21

gastr/o

stomach

22

gingivo/o

gums

23

gloss/o

tongue
*also lingu/o

24

hepat/o

liver

25

ile/o

ileum

26

jejun/o

jejunum

27

labi/o

lip
*also cheil/o

28

lapar/o

abdomen
*also abdomin/o and celi/o

29

lingu/o

tongue
*also gloss/o

30

mandibul/o

mandible

31

endodontist

performs root canal therapy

32

periodontist

one who specializes in around the tooth (gums)

33

or/o

mouth

34

palat/o

palate

35

pancreat/o

pancreas

36

peritone/o

peritoneum

37

pharyng/o

throat

38

proct/o

anus and rectum

39

pylor/o

pyloric sphinctor

40

rect/o

rectum

41

sialaden/o

salivary gland

42

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

43

stomat/o

mouth

44

uvul/o

uvula

45

amyl/o

starch

46

bil/i

gall, bile
*also chol/e

47

bilirubin/o

bilirubin (bile pigment)

48

lith/o

stone

49

-ase

enzyme

50

-iasis

abnormal condition

51

chlorhydr/o

hydrochloric acid

52

gluc/o

sugar
*also glyc/o

53

glyc/o

sugar
*also gluc/o

54

glycogen/o

glycogen, animal starch

55

lip/o

fat, lipid
*also steat/o

56

prote/o

protein

57

py/o

pus

58

sial/o

saliva, salivary

59

steat/o

fat
*also lip/o

60

-chezia

defecation

61

-prandial

meal

62

anorexia

loss of appetite

63

-on

functional unit

64

ascites

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen

65

borborygmus

Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the GI tract

66

dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing

67

eructation

Burping- gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth

68

flatus

gas expelled through the anus

69

hematochezia

Passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum.
-BRBPR comes from this

70

jaundice (icterus)

Yellow coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia)

71

melena
-What is stool guaiac testing?

Black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
-results from bleeding in the upper GI and blood is digested
-Stool guaiac testing detects blood in the stool

72

steatorrhea

Fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter.

73

aphthous stomatitis

aphthous = ulcers
stomatitis = inflammation of the mouth
-Inflammation of the mouth with small painful ulcers
-Ulcers called canker sores

74

dental caries

tooth decay

75

herpetic stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus.
-called fever blisters or cold sores

76

oral leukoplakia

-white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth
-pre cancerous lesion, can be malignant

77

periodontal disease

Inflammation and degeneration of the gums, teeth, and surrounding bone.

78

achalasia

a = no
chalasia = relaxation
-failure to lower the esophagus sphincter muscle to relax

79

esophageal varices

Swollen varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus.
-caused by incr pressure in veins near liver (portal hypertension) due to liver disease (usually do to alcohol- cirrhosis)

80

gastroesophageal reflex disease (GERD)

Solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
-leads to esophageal cancer

81

hernia
what are the 3 types

protrusion of an organ or part through the tissues and muscles normally containing it.
1-hiatal
2-inguinal
3-umbilius

82

hiatal hernia

occurs when the upper part of the stomach protrudes upward through the diaphragm
-can lead to GERD

83

Inguinal hernia

occurs when a small loop of bowel protrudes through a weak lower abdominal wall tissue (fascia) surrounding muscles.

84

peptic ulcer

open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum

85

anal fistula

Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
-often results from a break (fissure) in the wall of the anus or rectum or from an abscess (infected area)

86

colonic polyps

Polyps (benign growth) protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon.

87

colorectal cancer

adenocarcinoma of the colon, rectum or both

88

Crohn disease

Chronic inflammation of the intestinal bowel (more small bowel)

89

diverticulosis

abnormal outpouchings (diverticula) in the intestinal wall of the colon.

90

diverticulitis

complication of diverticulosis, when fecal matter becomes trapped in the diverticula.
-pain and rectal bleeding are symptoms

91

dysentery

Painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacteria

92

hemorrhoids

swollen, twisted veins in the anus

93

ileus

loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines.

94

inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Inflammation of the colon and small intestines

95

intussusception

Telescoping of the intestines
-one segment of bowel collapses into the opening of another segment

96

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Group of GI symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation), but without abnormalities in the intestines

97

ulcerative colitis

chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers

98

volvulus

twisting of the intestine on itself
-get get necrosis

99

cholelithiasis

Abnormal condition of gallstones in the gallbladder

100

pancreatoduodenectomy/ whipple procedure

Standard surgical treatment for pancreatic cancer
-remove duodenum and pancreas

101

viral hepatitis

inflammation of the liver caused by a virus

102

first part of the large intestine

cecum

103

second part of the small intestine

jejunum

104

3rd part of the small intestine

ileum

105

large organ in ROQ; secretes bile, stores sugar, produces blood proteins

liver

106

lowest part of the colon

sigmoid

107

first part of the small intestine

duodenum

108

organ under the stomach; produces insulin and digestive enzymes

pancreas

109

removal of a salivary gland

sialadenectomy

110

hernia of the rectum

rectocele

111

after meals

post prandial

112

study of the cause (of disease)

etiology

113

pertaining to teeth and cheek

dentibuccal

114

disease condition of the small intestine

enteropathy

115

new opening bw the common bile duct and the jejunum

cholecdochojejunostomy

116

new opening from the colon to the outside of the body

colostomy

117

inflammation of the large intestine

colitis

118

inflammation of the passageway from the throat to the stomach

esophagitis

119

inflammation of the membrane surrounding the abdomen

peritonitis

120

inflammation of the gallbladder

cholecystitis

121

inflammation of the third part of the small intestine

ileitis

122

inflammation of the mouth

stomatitis

123

inflammation of the small and large intestines

enterocolitis

124

high level of blood sugar

hyperglycemia

125

inflammation of the lip

cheilitis

126

pertaining to administrations of meds and fluid other than by mouth

parenteral

127

mucous membrane

mucosa

128

expulsion of feces from the body through the anus

defecation

129

breakdown (conversion) of starch to sugar

glycogenolysis

130

fan-like membrane that connects the small intestine to the abdominal wall

mesentery

131

large vessel that takes blood to the liver from the intestines

portal vein

132

new surgical connection bw structures or organs

anastomosis

133

pertaining to bile ducts

biliary

134

process of forming new sugar from proteins and fats

gluconeogenesis

135

high levels of bile pigment in the bloodstream

hyperbilirubinemia

136

passage of bright red blood from the rectum

hematochezia

137

lack of appetite

anorexia

138

fat in the feces

steatorrhea

139

black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood

melena

140

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen

ascites

141

rumbling noise produced by gas in the GI tract

borborygmus

142

gas expelled through the anus

flatus

143

loose, watery stool

diarrhea

144

difficulty swallowing

dysphagia

145

gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth

eructation

146

Mr. Jones, a smoker and heavy drinker, complained of dysphagia in recent months. A longstanding condition of Barrett esophagus resulted in his malignant condition.
Diagnosis?

Esophageal cancer

147

Abnormal tube-like passageway near his anus caused Mr. Rosen's proctalgia. His doctor performed surgery to close off this abnormality.
Diagnosis?

Anal fistula

148

Carols dentist informed her that the enamel of three teeth was damaged by bacteria-producing acid.
Diagnosis?

Dental caries

149

Paola's symptoms of chronic diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever led her dr to suspect that she suffered from an inflammatory bowel disease affecting the distal portion of her ileum. The Dr. prescribed steroid drugs to heal her condition.
Diagnosis?

Cronhs disease (Crohn's)

150

During a routine dental checkup, Dr. Friedman discovered white plaques on Mr. Longo's buccal mucosa. He advised Mr. Longo, who was a chronic smoker and heavy drinker, to have these precancerous lesions removed.
Diagnosis?

Oral leukoplakia

151

Every time Carl had a stressed time at work, he developed a fever blister (cold sore) on his lip, resulting from reactivation of a previous viral infection. His doctor told him that there was no treatment 100% effective in preventing the reappearance of these lesions.
Diagnosis?

Herpetic stomatitis

152

Mr. Green had a biopsy of a neoplastic lesion in his descending colon. The pathology report indicated a malignancy. A partial colectomy was necessary.
Diagnosis?

Colorectal cancer

153

Small ulcers (canker sores) appeared on Diane's gums. They were painful and annoying.
Diagnosis?

aphthous stomatitis

154

Sharon's failure to floss her teeth and remove dental plaque regularly led to the development of gingivitis and pyorrhea. Her dentist advised consulting a specialist who could treat her condition.
Diagnosis?

Periodontal disease

155

Imaging test revealed a tumor in a section of Mr. Smith's pancreas. His physician told him that since it had not spread, he could hope for a cure with surgery. He had a pancreatoduodenectomy (whipple procedure), which was successful.
Diagnosis?

Pancreatic cancer

156

Mr. Clark complained of pain during swallowing. His physician explained that the pain was caused by failure of muscles in his lower esophagus to relax during swallowing.
Diagnosis?

Achlasia

157

Mr. Hart learned that his colonoscopy shows the presence of small benign growths protruding from the mucous membrane of his large intestine.
Diagnosis?

Colonic polyps

158

Protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the diaphragm

Hiatal hernia

159

painful, inflamed intestines caused by bacterial infection

Dysentery

160

Swollen twisted veins in the rectal region

Hemorrhoids

161

Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum

Peptic ulcer

162

Loss of peristalsis

Ileus

163

Twisting of the intestine on itself

Volvulus

164

Swollen, varicose veins on the surface of the distal portion of the esophagus

esophageal varices

165

Abnormal out-pouchings in the intestinal wall

diverticulosis

166

Chronic inflammation of the colon with destruction of its inner surface

ulcerative colitis

167

telescoping of the intestines

intussusception

168

Inflammation of the liver caused by type A, type B, or type C virus

Viral hepatitis

169

Inflammation of the pancreas

Pancreatitis

170

Calculi in the sac that stores bile

Cholecystolithiasis (gall stones)

171

Chronic degenerative liver disease with scarring resulting from alcoholism or infectious hepatitis

Cirrhosis

172

GI symptoms (diarrhea or constipation, abdominal pain, bloating) with no evidence of structural abnormalities

Irritable bowel syndrome

173

Membrane (peritoneal fold) that holds the intestines together

mesentery

174

removal of the gall bladder

cholecystectomy

175

black, or dark brown, tarry stools containing blood

melena

176

High levels of pigment in the blood (jaundice)

Hyperbilirubinemia

177

Pertaining to under the tongue

sublingual

178

Twisting of the intestines on itself

volvulus

179

Organ under the stomach that produces insulin and digestive enzymes

pancreas

180

New connection bw two previously unconnected tubes

Anastomoses

181

Absence of acid in the stomach

Achlorhydria

182

Return of solids and fluids to the mouth from the stomach

Gastroesophageal reflux

183

Removal of soft tissue hanging from the roof of the mouth

uvulectomy

184

Formation of stones

lithogenesis

185

-ectasis

dilation, widening
*also -ectasia

186

-ectasia

dilation widening
*also -ectasis

187

Cholangi/o

bile duct (vessel)

188

-emesis

vomiting

189

-pepsia

digestion

190

-phagia

eating, swallowing

191

-ptysis

spitting

192

-rrhage, -rrhagia

bursting forth (of blood)

193

-rrhaphy

suture

194

-spasm

involuntary contraction of muscles

195

-stasis

stopping, controlling

196

-stenosis

narrowing, tightening

197

-tresia

opening

198

celiac

pertaining to the abdomen

199

Splen/o

spleen

200

Liver function tests (LFTs)

Tests for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in the blood

201

Stool guaic test or Hemoccult test

Test to detect occult (hidden) blood in the feces
-Impt screening test for colon cancer

202

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Contrast material administers through oral catheter
-Diagnoses problems involving bile ducts, gall bladder, and pancreas

203

Abdominal ultrasonography

Sound waves beamed into the abdomen produce an image of abdominal viscera

204

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)

Use of endoscope combined with ultrasound to examine the organs of the GI

205

Gastric bypass or bariatric surgery

Reducing the size of the stomach and diverting food to the jejunum (gastrojejunostomy)

206

bar/o

weight

207

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure

Reduces the stomach to a vol of 2 tablespoons and bypasses much of the small intestine.

208

ALT

Alanine transaminase, aspartate, transaminase
(enzymes measured to evaluate liver function)
*AST is same

209

AST

Alanine transaminase, aspartate, transaminase
(enzymes measured to evaluate liver function)
*ALT is same

210

BE

barium enema

211

BM

bowel movement

212

BRBPR

bright red blood per rectum
(hematochezia)

213

CT

computed tomography

214

EGD

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

215

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

216

EUS

endoscopic ultrasonography

217

G tube

gastrostomy tube

218

GB

gall bladder

219

GURD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

220

HBV

hepatitis B virus

221

IBD

imflammatory bowel disease

222

2 types of IBDs

chrons and ulcerative colitis

223

LFTs

liver function tests

224

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

225

NG tube

nasogastric tube

226

NPO

nothing per mouth

227

PEG tube

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (feeding tube)

228

PEJ tube

percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube (feeding tube)

229

PUD

peptic ulcer disease

230

TPN

total parenteral nutrition

231

stoppage of bile (flow)

cholestasis

232

suture of a hernia

heniorrhaphy

233

dilation of bile ducts

cholangiectasia

234

spitting up blood (from the respiratory tract)

hemoptysis

235

vomiting blood (from the digestive tract)

hematemesis

236

surgical repair of the roof of the mouth

palatoplasty

237

narrowing of the pyloric sphincter

pyloric stenosis

238

bursting forth of blood from the stomach

gastrorrhagia

239

sudden, involuntary contraction of muscles at the distal region of the stomach

pylorospasm

240

bursting forth of blood

hemorrhage

241

incision of the common bile duct

choledochotomy

242

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing

243

polyphagia

a lot of swallowing (eating)

244

dyspepsia

difficulty digesting

245

biliary atresia

biliary ducts not open

246

pyorrhea

flow of pus

247

cholestasis

stoppage of bile (flow)

248

esophageal atresia

pertaining to the esophagus not open (closed off at birth)

249

pyloroplasty

surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter

250

splenorrhagia

bursting forth of blood from the spleen

251

proctosigmoidoscopy

visual exam of the rectum, anus and sigmoid colon

252

hemorrhage

bursting forth of blood

253

cholangitis

inflammation of the bile ducts

254

removal of the gall bladder

cholecystectomy

255

large bowel resection

colectomy

256

suture of weakened muscular wall (hernia)

herniorrhaphy

257

new opening of the first part of the colon to the outside of the body

cecostomy

258

surgical repair of the abdomen

abdominoplasty

259

incision of a ring of muscles

sphincterotomy

260

removal of the pancreas and duodenum

pancreatooduodenectomy

261

opening of the third part of the small intestine to the outside of the body

ileostomy

262

removal of gum tissue

gingivectomy

263

surgical puncture of the abdomen for withdrawal of fluid

paracentesis (abdominocentesis)

264

discharge of fat

steatorrhea

265

difficulty swallowing

dysphagia

266

abnormal condition of gall stones

cholelithiasis

267

pertaining to the cheek

buccal

268

pertaining to the lips and teeth

labiodental

269

vomiting blood

hematemesis

270

enlargement of the liver

hepatomegaly

271

removal of the gall bladder

cholecystectomy

272

pertaining to the common bile duct

choledochal

273

hemorrhage from the stomach

gastrorrhagia

274

cecal volvulus

twisted intestine in the area of the cecum

275

aphthous stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth with small ulcers

276

celiac disease

autoimmune disorder where villi in the lining of the small intestine are damaged, resulting from dietary glutens such as wheat, barley and rye

277

lipase

enzyme to digest fat

278

cheilosis

abnormal condition of the lips

279

oropharynx

the part of the throat near the mouth

280

glycogen

storage form of sugar

281

glossectomy

removal of the tongue

282

sialadenectomy

removal of salivary gland

283

periodontal membrane

membrane surrounding a tooth

284

choledochectasia

dilation of common bile duct

285

cholangiocarcinoma

malignant tumor of bile vessels

286

measurement of bile pigment in the blood

serum bilirubin

287

placement of feces in a growth medium for bacterial analysis

stool culture

288

x-ray examination of the lower GI tract

barium enema

289

imagina of abdominal viscera via sound waves

abdominal ultrasonography

290

test to reveal hidden blood in feces

stool guiac (hemoccult)

291

sequential x-ray images of the small intestine

small bowel follow-through

292

injection of contrast material through the skin into the liver, to obtain x-ray images of the pancreas and bile ducts

per-cutaneous trans-hepatic colangiography (PTHC)

293

reduction of stomach size and gastrojejunostomy

gastric bypass (bariatric surgery)

294

insertion of an endoscope and use of ultrasound imaging to visualize the organs of the GI tract

endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)

295

percutaneous removal of liver tissue followed by microscopic examination

liver biopsy

296

visual examination of abdominal viscera through small abdominal incisions

laparoscopy

297

new opening of the stomach to the outside of the body for feeding

gastrostomy (G tube)

298

radioactive imaging of the liver, gallbladder, and intesting

HIDA scan

299

injection of contrast material via endoscope to obtain x-ray images of the pancreas and bile ducts

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

300

bursting forth of blood

-rrhagia, -rrhage

301

suture

-rrhaphy

302

dilation

-ectasis, -ectasia

303

narrowing

-stenosis

304

vomiting

-emesis

305

spitting

-ptysis

306

excision

-ectomy

307

digestion

-pepsia

308

eating, swallowing

-phagia

309

hardening

-sclerosis

310

stopping, controlling

-stasis

311

opening

-tresia

312

cali/o, calic/o

calyx (cup-shaped)

313

cyst/o

urinary bladder
*also vesic/o

314

glomerul/o

glomerulus

315

meat/o

meatus

316

nephr/o

kidney

317

pyel/o

renal pelvis

318

ren/o

kidney

319

trigon/o

trigone (region of the bladder)

320

ureter/o

ureter

321

urethr/o

urethra

322

vesic/o

urinary bladder
*also cyst/o

323

albumin/o

albumin

324

azot/o

nitrogen

325

bacteri/o

bacteria

326

dips/o

thirst

327

kal/o

potassium

328

ket/o, keton/o

ketone body (ketoacids and acetone)

329

natr/o

sodium

330

noct/o

night

331

olig/o

scanty

332

-poietin

substance that forms

333

-tripsy

crushing

334

ur/o

urine (urea)
*also urin/o

335

urin/o

uring
*also ur/o

336

-uria

urination; urine condition

337

When Mrs. Smith began to have diarrhea and crampy abdominal pain, she consulted a (urologist, nephrologist, gastroenterologist) and worried that the cause of her symptoms might be (inflammatory bowel disease, esophageal varices, achlasia)

-gastroenterologist
-inflammatory bowel disease

338

After taking a careful history and performing a thorough physical exam, Dr. Blakemore diagnosed Mr. Bean, a long-time drinker, with (hemorrhoids, pancreatitis, appendicitis). Mr. Bean had complained of sharp midepigastric pain and a change in bowel habits.

-pancreatitis

339

Many pregnant women cannot lie flat after eating without experience a burning sensation in their chest and throat. The usual cause of this symptom is (volvulus, dysentry, gastroesophageal reflux)

gastroesophageal reflux

340

Mr. and Mrs. Cho brought their young infant son to the clinic after he had several bouts of projectile vomiting. The pediatric surgeon suspected a diagnosis of (inguinal hernia, pyloric stenosis, ascites)

-pyloric steosis

341

Borris had terrible problems with his teeth. He needed not only a periodontist for his (aphthous stomatitis, oral leukoplakia, gingivitis), but also an (endodontist, oral surgeon, orthodontist) to straighten his teeth.

-gingivitis
-orthodontist

342

After 6 weeks of radiation therapy to her throat, Betty experienced severe esophageal irritation and inflammation. She complained to her doctor about her resulting (dyspepsia, dysphagia, hematemesis)

-dyphagia

343

Steven, age 7, is brought to the clinic bc of recurrent abdominal pain, occasional constipation and diarrhea, and weight loss. His pediatrician's diagnosis is (lipase deficiency, dysentery, celiac disease) and recommends a (fat, gluten, sugar)-free diet

-celiac disease
-gluten

344

Chris had been a heavy alcohol drinker all of his adult life. His wife notices worsening yellow discoloration of the whites of his eyes and skin. After physical exam and blood tests, is dr told him his (colon, skin, liver) was diseased. The yellowish discoloration was (jaundice, melena, flatus) and his condition was (cheilosis, cirrhosis, steatorrhea).

-liver
-jaundice
-cirrhosis

345

When Carol was working as a phlebotomist, she accidentally cut her finger while drawing a patients blood. Unfortunately, the patient had (pancreatitis, hemoptysis, hepatitis), and HBV was transmitted to Carol. Blood tests and (liver biopsy, gastrointestinal endoscopy, stool culture) confirmed Carol's diagnosis. Her dr told her that her condition was chronic and that she might be a candidate for a (bone marrow, liver, kidney) transplant in the future.

-hepatitis
-liver biopsy
-liver

346

Operation Smile is a rescue project that performs (heniorrhaphy, oral gingivectomy, palatoplasty) on children with a congenital cleft in the roof of the mouth.

-palatoplasty

347

glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney

348

intestinal nephritis

inflammation of the connective tissue that lies bw the renal tubules

349

nephrolithiasis

kidney stones (renal calculi)

350

nephrotic syndrom (nephrosis)

Group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine

351

polycystic kidney disease (PKD) * know abbrev

Multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidney

352

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the lining of the kidney

353

renal failure

decr excretion of wastes results from impaired filtration function

354

Wilms tumor*

malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood

355

diabetes insipidus (DI)

ADH is not secreted, or there is a resistance of the kidney to ADH

356

diabetes mellitus (DM)

insulin is not secreted adequately or tissues are resistant of insulin

357

retrograde pyelogram (RP)

X-ray image of the renal pelvis and ureters after injection of contrast material through urinary catheter into the ureters from the bladder

358

voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)

X-ray image of urinary bladder and urethra obtained while the patient is voiding

359

cystoscopy

Direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope)

360

dialysis*

process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the blood

361

lithotripsy
-what is the removal procedure?

stones (in urinary tract) are crushed
-removal by ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy)

362

what is ESWL? word and definition

-extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
-removal procedure for lithotripsy

363

ADH

anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin)

364

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

365

CRD

chronic kidney disease

366

CRF

chronic renal failure

367

C&S

culture and sensitivity

368

cysto

cystoscopic examination

369

IC

interstitial cystitis

370

IVP

intravenous pyelogram

371

KUB

kidney, ureter, bladder

372

PKD

polycystic kidney disease

373

RP

retrograde pyelography

374

UA

urinalysis

375

UTI

urinary tract infection

376

VCUG

voiding cystourethrogram

377

caliceal

pertaining to a calix

378

uric acid

nitrogenous waste excreted in urine

379

urinary meatal stenosis

narrowing of the urinary meatus

380

cystocele

hernia in the urinary bladder

381

pyelolithotomy

incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis

382

trigonitis

inflammation of the trigone

383

ureterileostomy

new opening bw the ureter and ileum

384

urethrosteosis

narrowing of the urethra

385

vesicoureteral reflux

backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureter

386

medullary

pertaining to inner, middle section (of kidney)

387

cortical

pertaining to outer section (of kidney)

388

calciferol

active form of vit D secreted by kidneys

389

nocturia

night urinating

390

dysuria

painful urinating

391

oliguria

scanty urination

392

polyuria

a lot of urinating

393

anuria

not urinating

394

pyuria

pus in the urine

395

albuminuria

albumin (protein) in the urine

396

hematuria

blood in the urine

397

glycosuria

sugar in the urine

398

ketonuria

ketones (acetones) in the urine

399

bacteriuria

bacteria in the urine

400

azotemia

excess nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream

401

polydipsia

condition of a lot of thirst

402

urinary incontinence

inability to hold urine in the bladder

403

enuresis

bed-wetting

404

urinary retention

inability to release urine from the bladder

405

ketosis

abnormal condition of ketones

406

Abnormal particles present in the urine -- cells, bacteria, casts, and crystals

sediment

407

Smoky-red color of urine caused by presence of blood

hematuria

408

Turbid (cloudy) urine caused by presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and pus

Pyuria

409

Sugar in the urine: a sign of diabetes mellitus and a result of hyperglycemia

glycosuria

410

Urine test that reflects the acidity or alkalinity of the urine

pH

411

High levels of acids and acetones accumulate in the urine as a result of abnormal fat break down.
What is this called?

ketonuria

412

Dark pigment that accumulates in the urine as a result of liver or gallbladder disease

bilirubinuria

413

Urine test that reflects the conc of the urine

specific gravity

414

Leaky glomeruli can produce accumulation of protein in the urine.

Albuminuria

415

Idiopathic high bp

essential hypertension

416

swelling, fluid in tissues

edema

417

narrowed area in a tube

stricture

418

collection of pus

abscess

419

inadequate secretion of insulin or improper utilization of insulin leads to this condition

diabetes mellitus

420

High bp caused by kidney disease or another disease

secondary hypertension

421

tube for withdrawing or giving fluid

catheter

422

inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to the action of ADH

diabetes insipidus

423

prolapse of a kidney

nephroptosis

424

severe pain resulting from a store that is blocking a ureter or a kidney

renal colic

425

excision of a kidney

nephrectomy

426

surgical incision into the kidney to remove a stone

nephrolithotomy

427

Visual examination of the urinary bladder via endoscope

cystoscopy

428

crushing of stones

lithotripsy

429

new opening of ureters to a segment of ileum

ureteroileostomy

430

surgical repair of the urethra

urethroplasty

431

Creation of an artificial opening into the kidney (via catheter) from outside the body.

nephrostomy

432

Surgical formation of an opening from the bladder to the outside of the body

cystostomy

433

removal of the urinary bladder

cystectomy

434

incision of a ureter to remove a stone

ureterolithotomy

435

After a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (made by renal biopsy), Dr. Davis advised Donna that (nephrostomy, meatotomy, nephrectomy) would be necessary

Nephrectomy

436

Ever since Bill's condition of gout was diagnosed, he has been warned that the uric acid crystals could accumulate in his blood and tissues, leading to (pyuria, renal calculi, cystocele)

renal calculi

437

The voiding cystourethogram demonstrated blockage of urine flow from Jimmy's bladder and (hydronephrosis, renal ischemia, azotemia)

hydronephrosis

438

Narrowed arterioles in the kidney incr blood pressure, so (urinary incontinence, urinary retention, nephrosclerosis) is often assoc with hypertension

nephrosclerosis

439

8 y/o Willy continually wet his bed at night while sleeping. His pediatrician instructed his mother to limit Willy's intake of fluids in the evening to discourage his (nocturia, oliguria, enuresis)

enuresis

440

David's chronic type I diabetes eventually resulted in (nephropathy, meatal stenosis, urolithiasis), which led to renal failure.

nephropathy

441

After Sue's bilateral renal failure, her dr advised dialysis and possible (cystostomy, nephrolithotomy, renal transplantation)

renal transplantation

442

When Maria's left kidney stopped functioning her contralateral kidney over-developed or (metastasized, atrophied, hypertrophied) to meet the incr workload

hypertrophied

443

A popular diet program recommends eating food high in fats and protein. People on this diet check their urine for the presence of (ketones, glucose, amino acids)

ketones

444

Andrea's urinalysis revealed proteinuria, and her ankles began to swell, demonstrating pitting, a condition known as (ascites, edema, stricture). Her (gastroenterologist, urologist, nephrologist) diagnosed Andrea's condition as (polycystic kidneys, nephrotic syndrome, bladder carcinoma) and recommended drugs to heal leaky glomeruli and diuretics to reduce swelling.

-edema
-nephrologist
-nephrotic syndrome