Chpt 13 & 14 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chpt 13 & 14 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt 13 & 14 Deck (266):
1

bas/o

base (opposite of acid)

2

-phil

attracted to

3

chrom/o

color

4

coagul/o

clotting

5

cyt/o

cell

6

eosin/o

red, dawn, rosy

7

erythr/o

red

8

granul/o

granules

9

hem/o

blood

10

hemat/o

blood

11

-crit

to separate

12

hematocrit

gives the percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood

13

hemoglobin/o

hemoglobin

14

is/o

same, equal

15

anisocytosis

= unequal cell sizes
abnormality of red blood cells (not white)

16

anis/o

unequal

17

kary/o

nucleus
*also nucle/o

18

leuk/o

white

19

mon/o

one, single

20

monocyte

= single nucleus of a cell
Mononuclear WBC formed in lymph tissue; it is a phagocyte and a precursor of a macrophage

21

morph/o

shape, form

22

myel/o

bone marrow

23

-blast

immature cell

24

neutr/o

neutral (neither base nor acid)

25

nucle/o

nucleus
*also kary/o

26

phag/o

eat, swallow

27

poikil/o

varied, irregular

28

poikilocytosis

= abnormal condition of irregular cells
Irregularity in the SHAPE of RBCs

29

sider/o

iron

30

spher/o

globe, round

31

spherocytosis

= abnormal condition of round cells
round shape makes them fragile and easily destroyed

32

thromb/o

clot

33

-apheresis

removal, a carrying away

34

-cytosis

abnormal condition of cells (increase in cells)

35

-emia

blood condition

36

-gen

giving rise to; producing

37

-globin

protein

38

-globulin

protein

39

-lytic

pertaining to destruction

40

-oid

derived or originating from

41

-penia

deficiency

42

-philia

attraction for (an increase in cell numbers)

43

-phoresis

carrying, transmission

44

-poiesis

formation

45

-stasis

stop, control

46

Hypochromia

Cells have reduced color (less hemoglobin)

47

Macrocytosis

Cells are large

48

Microcytosis

Cells are small

49

dyscrasia

Any abnormal or pathological condition of the blood

50

*Anemia

Deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin

51

*Aplastic anemia

Failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow. All cell lines will decrease

52

Pancytopenia

deficiency of all blood cells

53

Hemolytic anemia*

Reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction.
ex- congenital spherocytic anemia (hereditary spherocytosis)

54

*Pernicious anemia

Related to vitamin B-12

55

*Sickle cell anemia

Hereditary disorder of abnormal hemoglobin producing sickle-shaped erythrocytes and hemolysis. This distorted shape gets stick in blood vessels.

56

*Thalassemia

Has to do with the mediterranean

57

*Hemochromatosis

Blood and color
-Excess iron deposits throughout the body. (increased color due to iron)

58

*Polycythemia vera

General increase in the RBCs (erythremia). Blood consistency is thick because increased RBCs

59

*Hemophilia

Excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of blood clotting factors (FACTOR 8) necessary for blood clotting

60

*Purpura

Multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin

61

Petechiae

Tiny purple or red flat spots on skin as result of hemorrhages

62

Ecchymoses

Larger blue or purplish patches on the skin (bruises)

63

Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

Condition where a patient makes an antibody that destroys platelets. Bleeding time is prolonged

64

Leukemia*

Increase in cancerous white blood cells

65

Acute leukemia*

In children and adolescents

66

Chronic leukemia*

In old people

67

granulocytosis

Abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood

68

Mononucleosis*

Infectious disease marked by increase numbers of mononuclear leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes
-This disease is transmitted by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

69

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

Transmits mononucleosis

70

*Multiple myeloma

Malignant neoplasm of bone marrow

71

Palliative

relieving symptoms but not cute

72

*complete blood count (CBC)

Determination of numbers of blood cells, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit, and red cell values

73

Hematocrit (Hct)

PERCENTAGE of erythrocytes in a volume of blood

74

Hemoglobin test (H, Hg, Hgb, HGB) *

Total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of peripheral blood

75

Platelet count*

Number of platelets per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood

76

Prothrombin time (PT) *

Test of the ability of the blood to CLOT

77

Red blood cell count (RBC)

Number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood.

78

White blood cell count (WBC)

Number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood

79

autologous stem cell transplantation

The patients own stem cells are collected, stored and reinfused after potent chemotherapy.

80

Ab

antibody

81

ABO

four main blood types -- A, B, AB, O

82

ALL

acute lymphatic leukemia

83

AML

acute myelogenous leukemia

84

bands*

immature white blood cells (granulocutes)

85

baso*

basophils

86

BMT

bone marrow transplantation

87

CBC

complete blood count

88

CLL

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

89

CML

chronic myelogenous leukemia

90

DIC

disseminated intravascular coagulation

91

EBV

Eptein-Barr virus

92

Fe

Iron

93

GVHD

graft-versus-host disease
has to do with transplants (immune reaction of donor's cells to recipient's tissue)

94

Hct

hematocrit

95

Hgb, HGB

hemoglobin

96

H and H

hemoglobin and hematocrit

97

IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM

immunoglobulins

98

lymphs*

lymphocytes

99

polys*

polymorphonuclear leukocytes; neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

100

PMNs

polymorphonuclear leukocytes; neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

101

PMNLs

polymorphonuclear leukocytes; neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

102

PT

prothrombin time

103

pro time *

prothrombin time

104

PTT

partial thromboplastin time

105

RBC

red blood cell; red blood cell count

106

segs*

segmented, mature white blood cells (neutrophils)

107

WBC

white blood cell; white blood cell count

108

WNL

within normal limits

109

Cytotoxic T cell

Lymphocyte that directly kills antigens
Called CD8-positive T cell

110

B cell (B lymphocyte)

Lymphocyte that matures into plasma cell to secrete antibodies.

111

helper T cell

Lymphocyte that aids B cell and stimulates T cells.
Also called CD4-positive T cell.

112

lymph

Thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body

113

T cell (T lymphocyte)

Lymphocyte that acts directly on antigens to destroy them or produce chemicals (cytokines) such as interferons and interleukins.

114

immun/o

protection

115

lymph/o

lymph

116

lymphedema

IF collects within the spaces bw cells as a result of obstruction of lymphatic vessels and nodes. Radiation therapy may destroy lymphatics and produce lymphedema, as in breast cancer treatments.

117

lymphaden/o

lymph node (gland)

118

splen/o

spleen

119

thym/o

thymus gland

120

tox/o

toxic

121

ana-

again, anew

122

inter-

between

123

-phylaxis

protection

124

-stitial

pertaining to standing or positioned

125

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Group of clinical signs and symptoms associated with suppression of the immune system and marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems.

126

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

-Virus that causes AIDS
-HIV destroys helper T cells (aka CD4+ cells, containing the CD4 protein antigen). This disrupts the immune response, allowing for infections to occur.

127

Opportunistic infections

Infectious diseases associated with AIDS are called this.
-Because HIV lowers resistance and allows infection by bacteria and parasites that are easily otherwise contained.

128

Kaposi sarcoma*

Malignancies associated with AIDS. Its a skin cancer arising from the lining cells of the capillaries that produces dark purplish skin nodules

129

Wasting syndrome*

Marked by weight loss and decrease of muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity, this also may occur with AIDS

130

Lymphoma*

Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue

131

Hodgkin disease

Can see Reed-Sternberg cells

132

Multiple myeloma

Malignant tumor of bone marrow cells

133

Thymona

Malignant tumor of the thymus gland

134

Allergy*

Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen

135

AIDS*

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

136

CD4+ cell*

helper T cell

137

CD8+ cell*

cytotoxic T cell

138

CMV*

cytomegalovirus
-causes opportunistic AIDS-related infection

139

HD*

Hodgkin disease

140

Histo*

histoplasmosis
-fungal infection seen in AIDS patients

141

HIV*

human immunodeficiency virus

142

HSV*

herpes simplex virus

143

KS*

kaposi sarcoma

144

MAI*

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare

145

NHL***

non-hodgkin lymphoma

146

PCP

pneumocystis
-opportunistic AIDS-related infection

147

Toxo*

toxoplasmosis
-parasitic infection associated with AIDS

148

thrombocyte or cell fragment that helps blood clot

platelet

149

mononuclear leukocyte formed in lymph tissue; produces antibodies

lymphocyte

150

leukocyte with dense, reddish granules having an affinity for red acidic dye; associated with allergic reactions

eosinophil

151

leukocyte (polymorphonuclear granulocyte) formed in the bone marrow; granules do not stain intensely and have pale color

neutrophil

152

leukocyte (granulocyte) with dark-staining blue granules; releases histamine and heparin

basophil

153

coagulation

blood clotting

154

granulocyte

WBC with numerous dark staining granules (neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil)

155

mononuclear (definition)

pertaining to a leukocyte with a single round nucleus (monocytes, lymphocytes)

156

polymorphonuclear (definition)

pertaining to a WBC with a multi-lobed nucleus (neutrophil)

157

megakaryocyte (definition)

large platelet precursor cell found in bone marrow

158

plasma

liquid portion of the blood

159

myeloblast

immature bone marrow cell that gives rise to granulocytes

160

plasma minus clotting proteins and cells

serum

161

change in structure and function of a cell as it matures

differentiation

162

hemolysis

destruction/breakdown of RBCs

163

What is electrophoresis?

method of separating serum proteins by electrical charge

164

What is an immunoglobulin

protein with antibody activity (IgG, IgE, IgH)

165

What is plasapheresis

removal by centrifuge of plasma from withdrawn blood

166

anticoagulant

substance that prevents clotting

167

hemoglobinopathy

disease condition of hemoglobin

168

cytology

study of cells

169

leukopenia

deficiency of WBCs

170

morphology

the study of shape or form (of cells)

171

megakaryote

cell with a large nucleus

172

sideropenia

deficiency of iron

173

phagocyte

cell that eats or swallows

174

myelopoiesis

formation of bone marrow

175

plateletpheresis

separation of platelets

176

monoblast

immature monocyte

177

myelodysplasia

abnormal production of bone marrow

178

hemostasis

controlling or stopping blood

179

thrombolytic

pertaining to destroying clots

180

hematopoiesis

formation of blood cells

181

derived in bone marrow

myeloid

182

deficiency of a type of WBC

neutropenia

183

percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood

hematocrit

184

increase in a type of WBC (seen in allergies)

eosinophilia

185

abnormal condition of clot formation

thrombosis

186

separation of WBCs from a blood sample

leukapheresis

187

disease of clotting process

coagulopathy

188

deficiency of platelets

thrombocytopenia

189

any irregularity in the shape of RBCs

poikilocytosis

190

formation of RBCs

erythropoiesis

191

deficiency in numbers of RBCs

anemia

192

destruction of RBCs

hemolysis

193

pertaining to reduction of hemoglobin in RBCs

hypochromic

194

variation in size of RBCs

anisocytosis

195

abnormal numbers of round, rather than normally bi-concave shaped, RBCs

spherocytosis

196

increase in the number of small RBCs

microcytosis

197

general increase in numbers of RBCs; erythemia

polycytosis vera

198

increase in numbers of large RBCs

macrocytosis

199

iron deficiency anemia*

lack of iron leading to insufficient hemoglobin production

200

pernicious anemia*

lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb B12

201

sickle cell anemia*

hereditary disorder of abnormal hemoglobin producing sickle-shaped erythrocytes

202

aplastic anemia*

failure in blood cell production in bone marrow

203

thalassemia*

inherited defect of inability to produce hemoglobin leading to hypochromia

204

purpura

multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin

205

granulocytosis

abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood (eosiniphilia and basophilia)

206

hemophilia

excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of blood clotting factors

207

hemochromatosis (definition)

excessive iron deposits throughout the body

208

multiple myeloma

malignant neoplasm of the bone marrow

209

mononucleosis

abnormal condition of increase in the number of mononuclear leukocytes and enlarges cervical lymph nodes.

210

Bence Jones protein

Immunoglobulin fragment found in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma

211

apheresis

separation of blood into its parts

212

eosinophilia

increase in numbers of granulocytes; seen in allergic conditions

213

packed cells

preparation of erythrocytes separated from plasma

214

Gary, a 1 year old black child, was failing to gain weight normally. He seemed pale and without energy. His blood tests shows a decreased hemoglobin and decreased hematocrit. After a blood smear revealed abnormally shaped RBCs, the physical told Gary's parents that their son had (iron deficiency / hemophelia / sickle cell anemia)

sickle cell anemia

215

61 year old Barbara's lab tests shows abnormal proteins in her plasma and Bence Jones protein in her urine. She had osteopenia and a fracture in one of her ribs. Her oncologist diagnosed her condition as (mononucleosis / thrombocytopenic purpura / multiple myeloma)

multiple myeloma

216

Bobby was diagnosed at a very early age with a bleeding disorder called (hemophilia, thalassemia, eosinophilia). He needed factor 8 regularly after even the slighted thaumatic injury.

hemophilia

217

Susan was experiencing heavy menstrual periods (menorrhea / menorrhagia / hemoptysis). Because of the bleeding, she frequently felt tired and weak and probably was sideropenic. Her physician performed blood tests that revealed her problem as (thrombocytopenia / pernicious anemia / ion deficiency anemia)

menorrhagia, iron deficiency anemia

218

Dr. Harris examined a highly allergic patient and sent a blood sample to a specialist, a (pulmonary / cardiovascular, hematologic) pathologist. The specialist stained the blood smear and found an abundance of leukocytes with dense, reddish granules. She made the diagnosis of (basophilia, eosinophilia, neutrophilia)

hematologic, eosinophilia

219

George's blood cell counts had been falling in recent weeks. His scheduled laparotomy was canceled because blood tests revealed (pancytopenia, plasmapheresis, myelopoiesis). Bone marrow biopsy determined that the cause was (hyperplasia, hypoplasia, differentiation)

pancytopenia, hypoplasia

220

collection of stationary lymphatic tissue along lymph vessels

lymph node

221

large lymphatic vessel that drains lymph from the lower and left side of the body

thoracic duct

222

organ in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen that destroys worn-out erythrocytes, activates lymphocytes, and stores blood.

spleen

223

mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx

adenoids

224

lymphoid organ in the mediastinum that conditions T cells to react from the upper right part of the body

right lymphatic duct

225

fluid in the spaces between cells

interstitial fluid

226

cervical nodes (location) *

neck

227

mediastinal nodes (location)*

space between the lungs in the chest

228

paraaortic nodes (location)*

near the aorta in the lumbar region of the body

229

mesenteric nodes (location)*

intestines

230

lymphocyte that matures from a B lymphocyte and secretes antibodies

plasma cell

231

large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues in the body

macrophage

232

CD4+ T cell the aids B cells in recognizing antigens

helper T cell

233

Treg that inhibits the activity on B and T lymphocytes

supressor T cell

234

proteins in the blood that help antibodies and T cells kill their target

compliment system

235

antigen-presenting cell; shows B cells and T cells what to attack

dendritic cell

236

toxins

poisons (antigens)

237

helper T cells

lymphocytes that aids B cells; CD4+ T cell

238

supressor T cells

T lymphocytes that inhibit the activity of B and T cells

239

cytotoxic T cells

T lymphocytes that directly kill foreign cells (CD8+ T cells)

240

plasma cells

Transformed B cells that secrete antibodies

241

interferons and interleukins

Cytokines secreted by cytotoxic T cells

242

formation of lymph

lymphopoiesis

243

malignant tumor of the thymus gland

thymoma

244

inflammation of lymph glands (nodes)

lymphadenitis

245

deficiency of lymph cells

lymphycytopenia

246

pertaining to poison

toxic

247

disease of lymph glands (nodes)

lymphadenopathy

248

syndrome marked by enlargement of the spleen and associated with anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia

hypersplenism

249

antigen capable of causing allergy (hypersensitivity)

allergen

250

extraordinary hypersensitivity to a foreign protein; marked by hypotension, chock, and respiratory distress

anaphylaxis

251

disorder in which the immune system is suppressed by exposure to HIV

AIDS

252

removal of a mediastinal organ

thymectomy

253

malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue in the lymph nodes and spleen; Reed-Sternberg cells are in lymph nodes.

Hodgkin disease

254

spleen, thymus, and tonsils

lymphoid organs

255

swelling of tissues due to IF accumulation

lymphedema

256

white blood cells that are destroyed with AIDS

CD4+ T cells

257

group of infectious diseases associated with AIDS

opportunistic infections

258

weight loss with decreases muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity

wasting syndrome

259

drug used to treat AIDS by blocking an enzyme needed to make copies of HIV

RT inh

260

drug used to treat AIDS by blocking the production of an enzyme that creates new viral pieces for HIV

protease inh

261

chronic, disabling diseases caused by abnormal production of antibodies to normal tissue*

autoimmune diseases

262

a hypersensitivity or allergic state with an inherited predisposition*

atopy

263

a malignant tumor of lymph nodes; follicular and large cell are types of this disease*

non hodgkin lymphoma

264

introduction of altered antigens to produce an immune response and protection from disease*

vaccination

265

tests that separate immunoglobulins*

immunoelectrophoresis

266

antibody used in immunotherapy; produced in a lab to attack antigens and destroy cells*

monoclonal antibody