Chpt 15, & 16 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chpt 15, & 16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt 15, & 16 Deck (205):
1

Bones are composed of a type of connective tissue called ___

Osseous

2

Bone of a fetus are mainly composed of?

Cartilage

3

Large bone cells called _____ digest bone tissue to shape the bone and smooth it out.

Osteoclasts

4

2 mineral substances needed for bone development are?

Calcium & Phosphorous

5

Round, small bone covering the knee joint is a/an ?

Sesamoid

6

Shaft of a long bone is the?

Diaphysis

7

Ends of a long bone are the?

Epiphysis

8

Cartilaginous area at the end of a long bond where growth takes place is the _____

Epiphyseal plate

9

Red bone marrow is found in spongy or ______ bone.

Cancellous or trabecular

10

Yellow bond marrow is compose of ______ tissue.

Fat

11

The strong membrane surrounding the surface of a bone is the?

Periosteum

12

Hard, dense bone tissue lying under the periosteum is ______.

Compact bone

13

A series of canals containing blood vessels lie within the outer dense tissue of bone and are called the ______ canals.

Haversian

14

A thin layer of cartilage covering the ends of bones at the joints is ______ .

Articular cartilage

15

The ______ is a central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of long bones.

Medullary cavity

16

Two physicians who treat bones and bone diseases are a/an ______ and a/an ______ .

Orthopedist & Osteopath

17

A practitioner who manipulates the patient's spinal column to relieve pressure on nerves is a/an ______

Chiropractor

18

Medical doctor who specializes in restoring patients to function activity after injuries to bones, nerves, and muscles is a/an ______.

Physiatrist

19

Space through which the spinal cord passes

Neural canal

20

Piece of cartilage between 2 vertebrae

Intervertebral disc

21

Posterior part of a vertebra

Vertebral arch

22

Anterior part of a vertebra

Vertebral body

23

Name the 5 divisions of the spinal column

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

24

Upper arm bone

Humerus

25

Thigh bone

Femur

26

Finger bones

Phalanges

27

Forearm bone (little finger side)

Ulna

28

Forearm bone (thumb side)

Radius

29

Collar bone

Clavicle

30

Wrist bone

Carpals

31

Backbone

Vertebral column

32

3 parts of the pelvis

Ilium, Ischium, Pubis

33

Mid-foot bones

Metatarsals

34

Foramen magnum

Opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.

35

Acromion

Lateral extension of the scalpula

36

Xiphoid process

Lower portion of the sternum

37

Lamina

Portion of the vertebral arch

38

Malleolus

The bulge on either side of the ankle joint (lower end of the tibia is the medial malleolus and the lower end of the fibula is the lateral malleolus).

39

Acetabulum

Depression of the pelvis in which the femur bone fits.

40

Pubic symphysis

Area of convergence of the 2 pubic bones, at the midline

41

Olecranon

Bony process at the proximal end of the ulna; elbow joint

42

Fontanelle

Soft spot between the bones of the skill in an infant.

43

Mastoid process

Round process on the temporal bone behind the ear

44

Styloid process

Pole-like process projecting downward from the temporal bone.

45

Osteogenesis

Process of forming bone

46

Spondylosis

Abnormal condition of the vertebrae - degenerative changes in the spine

47

Ossification

Formation of bone

48

Removal of hand bones

Metacarpectomy

49

Poor bone development

Osteodystrophy

50

Removal of the lamina of the vertebral arch

Laminectomy

51

Myelopoiesis

Formation of bone marrow

52

Clubfoot

Talpes

53

Humpback

Kyphosis

54

Benign tumors arising from the bone surface

Exostoses

55

Brittle bone disease

Osteogenesis Imperfects

56

Scoliosis

Lateral curvature of the spine

57

Anterior curvature of the spine

Lordosis

58

Forward slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra over a lower vertebra

Spondylolisthesis

59

Osteotome

Instrument to cut bone

60

Ewing sarcoma

Malignant tumor of bone in children -- often involving entire shaft of long bone

61

Metastatic bone lesion

Malignant tumor that has spread to bone from breast, kidney, lung or prostate

62

Compound fracture

Break in bone with wound in skin

63

Simple fracture

Break in bone without wound in skin

64

Ope reduction

Bone is put in proper place after incision of skin

65

Immoveable joint, as in the skull bones

Suture joint

66

Connective tissue that binds muscle to bone

Tendon

67

Another term for joint

Articulation

68

Connective tissue that binds bones to other bones

Ligaments

69

Bursa

Sac of fluid near a joint

70

Inflammation surrounding a joint

Periarthritis

71

Abnormal condition of blood in the joint

Hemarthrosis

72

Bursitis

Inflammation of a sac of fluid near the joint

73

Doctor who specialized in the treatment of joint disorders

Rheumatologist

74

Abnormal condition of a stiffened, immobile joint

Ankylosis

75

Suture of a tendon

Tenorrhaphy

76

An inherited condition in which the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow normally because of a defect in cartilage and bone formation; type of dwarfism.

Achondroplasia

77

Degenerative joint disease; chronic inflammation of bones and joints

Osteoarthritis

78

Chronic joint disease; inflamed and painful joints owing to autoimmune reaction against normal joint tissue, and synovial membranes become swollen and thickened.

Reumatoid arthritis

79

Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body (hyperuricemia)

Gouty arthritis

80

Abnormal swelling of a metatarsophalangeal joint

Bunion

81

Cystic mass arising from a tendon in the wrist

Ganglion cyst

82

Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, especially of the spine (vertebrae)

Ankylosing spondylitis

83

Chronic inflammation disease not only affecting the joints but the skin (butterfly rash on the face), kidneys, heart, and lungs.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

84

Inflammation of a tendon sheath

Tendosynovitis

85

Compression of the median nerve in the wrist as it passes through an area between a ligament, tendons, bones, and connective tissue

Carpal tunnel syndrome

86

Displacement of a bone from its joint

dislocation

87

Subluxation (definition)

Partial or incomplete displacement of a bone from the joint

88

Arthrodesis (definition)

Surgical fixation of a joint (binding together by fusing the joint surfaces)

89

Pyrexia (definition)

Fever; increase in body temp

90

Podagra (definition)

Pain in a big toe from gouty arthritis

91

Sciatica

Pain radiating from the back to the leg (along the sciatic nerve); most commonly caused by a protruding intervertebral disk.

92

Herniation of an intervertebral disk

Protrusion of a disk into the neural canal or the spinal nerves

93

Laminectomy (definition)

Removal of a portion of the vertebral arch (lamina) to relieve pressure from a protruding intervertebral disk.

94

Sprain

Traume to a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments

95

Strain

overstretching of a muscle

96

Hyperuricemia (definition)

High levels of uric acid in the bloodstream; present in gouty arthritis.

97

Fascia (definition)

Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles

98

Connection of the muscle to a stationary bone

Origin

99

Connection of the muscle to a bone that moves

Insertion

100

Pronation (definition)

Turning the palm down

101

Leiomyosarcoma

Malignant tumor of smooth muscle

102

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Benign tumor of striated muscle

103

Muscular dystrophy

Group of inherited muscular diseases marked by the progressive weakness and degeneration of muscles without nerve involvement.

104

Amyotropic lateral sclerosis

Muscles degenerate (paralysis occurs) owing to degeneration of nerves in the spinal cord and lower region of the brain; Lou Gehrigs disease

105

Sarcopenia

Deficiency of flash (muscle mass)

106

ROM

Range of motion

107

EMG

Electromyography

108

THR

Total hip replacement (arthroplasty)

109

Bleeding disorders can lead to this accumulation of blood in and around a joint

Hemarthrosis

110

Inflammation of a bursa causes this abnormality

Bunion

111

Rheumatologists

Physicians (nonsurgical) who specialize in joint problems, such as arthritis.

112

Orthopedist

Physicians who treat (surgically and medically) bone, joint and muscle conditions.

113

Physiatrists

Medical doctors whose focus is on rehabilitation after injure or illness to muscles, bones and nerves.

114

-listhesis

Slipping

115

-physis

to grow

116

perone/o

fibula

117

Ewing sarcoma

Rare malignant tumor arising in bone; most often occurring in children.

118

Exostosis

Bony growth (benign) arising from the surface of bone.

119

Open reduction

Incision made for access to the fracture site.

120

Osteogenic sarcoma (definition)

Common malignant tumor arising from osteoblasts, found primarily in children and adolescents.

121

Osteomyelitis (definition)

Inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection. Bacteria enter the body through a wound and spread to the bone.

122

Osteoporosis (definition)

Decrease in bone density (mass); thinning and weakening of bone.

123

Talipes

Congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus). Clubfoot is the most common.

124

Bursae

Closed sacs of synovial fluid lined with synovial membrane and are lovated near byt not within a joint.

125

-desis

to bind/ tie together

126

-stenosis

narrowing

127

anklyosing spondylitis

Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening or joints, primarily of the spine.

128

gouty arthritis (gout)

Inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body

129

Osteoarthritis (definition) (OA)

Progressive, degenerative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone at articular surfaces.

130

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

Chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain; caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly the synovial membrane.

131

Sprain

Trauma to ligaments without rupture

132

fibr/o

fibrous connective tissue

133

leiomy/o

smooth muscle

134

-asthenia

lack of strength

135

rhabdomy/o

skeletal (striated) muscle

136

Muscular dystrophy

Dystrophy = abnormal development
Group of inherited diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without involvement of the nervous system.

137

arthrography

taking x-ray images after injection of contrast material into a joint.

138

bone density test (bone densitometry)

low-energy x-ray absorption in bones of the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist is used to measure bone mass.

139

Contagious parasitic infection with intense pruritis

scabies

140

Another word to rubeola

measles

141

thickened excess cicatrix (scar)

keloid

142

white patches on mucous membrane of tongue or inner cheek

leukoplakia

143

characterized by a rash

exanthematous

144

thickening of epidermis related to sunlight exposure

actinic keratosis

145

small pinpoint hemorrhages

petechiae

146

large blisters

bullae

147

hyperpigmented macule or papule of the skin (mole)

nevus

148

another word for wart

verruca

149

sac of fluid and hair over sacral region

pilonidal cyst

150

acute allergic reaction where hives develop

urticaria

151

describe a second degree burn

damage to epidermis and dermis with blisters, erythemia and hyperesthesia.

152

describe a first degree burn

damage to epidermis with erythemia and hyperesthesia, but no blisters.

153

describe a third degree burn

destruction of both dermis and epidermis and damage to subcutaneous layer.

154

Another word for rash

exanthem

155

another word for baldness

alopecia

156

another word for bedsore

decubitus ulcer

157

"black and blue" mark

ecchomosis

158

another word for itching

pruritus

159

dandruff

seborrheic dermatitis

160

How does pyoderma affect the skin

collection of pus in the skin

161

How does xerosis affect the skin

dry skin

162

How does leukoderma affect the skin

white patches of the skin

163

How does a callus affect the skin

increased growth of cells in the epidermal layer caused by pressure or friction

164

How does a keloid affect the skin

thickened, hypertrophies scar tissue

165

purulent means

puss-filled

166

A surgical procedure to core out a disk of skin for microscopic analysis is a/an

punch biopsy

167

The procedure in which thin layers of a malignant growth are removed and each is examined under the microscope is ______

Mohs surgery

168

A type of skin cancer associated with AIDS and marked by dark blue-purple lesions over this skin is ______

Kaposi sarcoma

169

Abnormla, premalignant moles are ______

dysplastic nevi

170

Removal of skin tissue using a cut parallel to the surface of the surrounding skin is called a/an ______

shave biopsy

171

Destruction of tissue using intensely cold temperatures is ______

cryosurgery

172

Scraping away skin to remove acne scars and fine wrinkles on the skin is ______

dermabrasion

173

Removal of subcutaneous fat tissue by aspiration is ______

liposuction

174

Destruction of tissue using an electric spark is ______

electrodesication

175

Use of a sharp, spoon-like instrument to scrape away tissue is ______

curettage

176

an inherited condition in which the bones of the arms and the legs fail to grow normally because of a defect in cartilage and bone formation; type for dwarfism

achondroplasia

177

inflammation of a tendon sheath

tenosynovitis

178

subluxation

partial or incomplete displacement of a bone from the joint

179

sciatica

pain radiating from the back to the the leg (along the sciatic nerve). Usually caused by a protruding intervertebral disk

180

articul/o

joint

181

scoli/o

crooked, bent (lateral curvature)

182

-physis

to grow

183

-porosis

pore/ passage

184

The half-moon-shaped white area at the base of the nail is the ______

lunula

185

deepest region of the epidermis

basal layer

186

the outermost layer of the epidermis, which consists of flattened, keratinized cells, is the ______

stratum corneum

187

inflammation and swelling of soft tissue around a nail is ______

paronychia

188

2 words for fungal infection of hands at feet

dermatophytosis & dermatomycosis

189

burning sensation (pain) in skin ___

causalgia

190

abnormal condition of excessive hair growth

hypertrichosis

191

squam/o

scale-like

192

pruritis

itching

193

actinic keratosis

thickening of epidermis related to sunlight exposure

194

vitiligo

loss of pigment in the skin

195

-ose

pertaining to/ full of

196

-plakia

plaques

197

vitiligo

loss of pigmentation in the skin

198

-ose

pertaining to/ full of

199

-plakia

plaques

200

poli/o

grey

201

lute/o

yellow

202

eosin/o

rosy

203

cyan/o

blue

204

anthrac/o

black as coal

205

cirrh/o

tawny yellow