Chpt. 3 - Key Terms Flashcards Preview

Anesthesia > Chpt. 3 - Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt. 3 - Key Terms Deck (34):
1

Adjunct

A drug that is not a true anesthetic but that is used during anesthesia to produce other desired effects such as sedation, muscle relaxation, analgesia, reversal, neuromuscular blockade, or parasympathetic blockade.

2

Agonist-Antagonist

A drug that binds to more than one receptor type, simultaneously stimulating at least one and blocking at least one.

3

Agonist

A drug that binds to and stimulates tissue receptors.

4

Analeptic agent

A drug that causes general central nervous system stimulation.

5

Anesthetic agent

Any drug used to induce a loss of sensation with or without unconsciousness.

6

Antagonists

A drug that binds to but does not stimulate receptors.

7

Anticholinergics

An adjunct that lessens parasympathetic effects by blocking muscarinic receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Also known as a parasympatholytic.

8

Apnea

A temporary absence of spontaneous breathing.

9

Apneustic respiration

A breathing pattern, most often seen during dissociative anesthesia, in which there is a pause for several seconds at the end of the inspiratory phase, followed by a short, quick expiratory phase.

10

Ataxia

Inability to coordinate movement.

11

Bagging

Inflating the patient's lungs by squeezing the reservoir bag. Manual, positive-pressure ventilation.

12

Cataleptoid state

A state produced by dissociative agents, in which a patient does not respond to external stimuli and has a variable degree of muscle rigidity.

13

Colic

Severe abdominal pain of sudden onset caused by a variety of conditions including obstruction, twisting, or spasm of the intestinal tract.

14

Cortisol

A natural steroid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, which plays a role in protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism.

15

Dead space

The breathing passages and tubes that convey fresh oxygen from the source (the atmosphere or the breathing circuit) to the alveoli, but in which no gas exchange can occur.
ANATOMIC DEAD SPACE includes the bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx, and nasal cavity.
MECHANICAL DEAD SPACE includes the Y-piece of the breathing circuit, where there is bidirectional flow of gases, and the portion of the endotracheal tube extending beyond the nose or the Y-piece and face mask.

16

Dysphoria

Anxiety, uneasiness, and restlessness most often produced by opioids; the opposite of euphoria.

17

Enantiomers

A mixture of two molecules that are mirror images of one another. The dextrorotatory enantiomer is a molecule that rotates the plane of polarized light to the right, and the levorotatory molecule rotates it to the left.

18

Fasciculations

Involuntary muscle twitching.

19

Hypoventilation

Slow and/or shallow ventilation, resulting in decreased minute volume; the opposite of hyperventilation.

20

Mydriasis

Dilatation of the pupil of the eye; opposite of miosis.

21

Neuroleptanalgesia

Opioids used in combination with a tranquilizer to achieve a state of profound sedation and analgesia.

22

Neuromuscular blocker

An adjunct used to relax or paralyze skeletal muscles as a part of balanced anesthesia.

23

Nystagmus

A rhythmic, involuntary oscillation (back and forth movement) of both eyes.

24

Parasympatholytic

An adjunct that lessens parasympathetic effects by blocking muscarinic receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Also known as an anticholinergic.

25

Partial agonists

A drug that binds to and partially stimulates tissue receptors.

26

Pharmacodynamics

The effect a drug has on the body.
Drug action.

27

Pharmacokinetics

The effect that the body has on a drug, including movement of a drug in the body.

28

Preanesthetic medications

An anesthetic agent or adjunct administered during the preanesthetic period to provide one or more of a variety of desired effects, including analgesia, sedation, and muscle relaxation.

29

Reversal agents

A drug used to lessen or abolish the effects of anesthetic agents or adjuncts, and which is therefore used to "wake" the patient after sedation or anesthesia.

30

Somatic analgesia

Absence of pain of the skin, muscle, bone, and connective tissue.

31

Status epilepticus

Continuous seizures, or a series of seizures in rapid succession.

32

Tachycardia

Rapid HR; the opposite of bradycardia.

33

Tidal volume

The volume of a normal breath (approx. 10 to 15 mL/kg body weight).

34

Visceral analgesia

Absence of pain in the internal organs.