Chronic Leukemia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chronic Leukemia Deck (25):
1

A neoplastic proliferation of mature circulating lymphocytes that is characterized by a high WBC count…

Chronic leukemia

2

A disease of neoplastic proliferation of naïve B cells…

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

3

What are the two markers that are co-expressed with naïve B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

CD5 and CD20

4

What is seen on the blood smear of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

Increased lymphocytes
Smudge cells

5

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia can involve the lymph nodes causing a lymphadenopathy. What is this called?

Small lymphocytic lymphoma

6

What are the 3 major complications seen with chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

Hypogammaglobulinemia
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Richter transformation—a transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

7

What is Richter transformation?

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia transforming into a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

8

What marks Richter transformation seen with chronic lymphocytic leukemia clinically?

Enlarging lymph node or spleen

9

What is the most common cause of death seen in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

Infection

10

Why is infection the most common cause of death in chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

Due to hypogammaglobulinemia

11

A neoplastic proliferation of mature B cells that is characterized by hairy cytoplasmic processes?

Hairy cell leukemia

12

Hairy cell leukemia cells are positive for what?

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)

13

What are the clinical features seen with hairy cell leukemia?

Splenomegaly
Dry tap on bone marrow aspiration

14

What causes the splenomegaly seen with hairy cell leukemia?

Accumulation of hairy cells in RED PULP

This is different from other leukemias because the cells usually accumulate in the white pulp

15

What is the best treatment for hairy cell leukemia?

2-CDA—cladribine

16

What is the mechanism of action for 2-CDA (cladribine) when treating hairy cell leukemia?

2-CDA is an adenosine deaminase inhibitor and causes adenosine to accumulate in the neoplastic B cells causing death of the cells

17

A disease involving neoplastic proliferation of mature CD4+ T cells?

Adult T-cell leukemia/Lymphoma

18

What marker is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma?

HTLV-1

19

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is most commonly seen in what areas of the world?

Japan
Caribbean

20

What are the clinical features seen with Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma?

Rash
Generalized lymphadenopathy
Hepatosplenomegaly
Lytic bone lesions with hypercalcemia—don’t confuse with multiple myeloma!

21

A neoplastic proliferation of mature CD4+ T cells that infiltrate the skin?

Mycosis fungoides

22

What is produced by mycosis fungoides due the infiltration of the skin?

Localized skin rash, plaques, and nodules

23

What are pautrier microabscesses seen with mycosis fungoides?

Aggregates of neoplastic cells in the epidermis

24

Mycosis fungoides cells can spread to involve the blood. This pathogenesis causes what syndrome to occur?

Sezary syndrome

25

What characterizes Sezary syndrome?

Lymphocytes with cerebriform nuclei (Sezary cells) on blood smear