Chs. 5-7 Final exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chs. 5-7 Final exam Deck (94):
1

a plan for a loose of the states under Congress

Articles of Confederation

2

3 powers given to Congress by the Articles of Confederation

1 - declare war
2 - raise an army
3 - sign treaties

3

2 powers NOT given to Congress by the Articles of Confederation

1 - create taxes
2 - regulate trade

4

problem with the Articles of Confederation

created a very weak central government

5

meeting to discuss a stronger national government

Constitutional Convention

6

when and where did the Constitutional Convention happen?

1787, Philadelphia

7

who suggested the Constitutional Convention?

Alexander Hamilton

8

problem solved by the Connecticut Compromise

should big and little states have same # reps in Congress?

9

another name for the Connecticut Compromise

Great Compromise

10

the Connecticut Compromise proposed that Congress should be divided into two __

houses

11

two houses of Congress

House of Representatives and Senate

12

each state gets __ senators, regardless of population

two

13

problem solved by the Three-Fifths Compromise

should slaves should count for representation in Congress?

14

solution in the Three-Fifths compromise

every slave counted for ⅗ of one person

15

group who supported a strong central government with a Constitution

Federalists

16

group who favored a weaker central government, and generally opposed the Constitution

Antifederalists

17

three famous Federalists

Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, James Madion

18

two famous Antifederalists

John Hancock, Patrick Henry

19

document that was supposed to strengthen the federal government

Constitution

20

how many states needed to approve the Constitution?

nine

21

two states that did not approve of the Constitution

Rhode Island and North Carolina

22

fancy word for "approving" the Constitution

ratification

23

three important ideas in the Constitution

- popular sovereignty
- federalism
- separation of powers

24

rule by the people

popular sovereignty

25

split in power between federal government and states

federalism

26

three branches of federal government

- executive
- legislative
- judicial

27

who is in the executive branch?

president, cabinet, other departments

28

job of executive branch

carry out Congress's laws; veto power over Congress

29

who is in the legislative branch?

Congress (House of Representatives and Senate)

30

two jobs of legislative branch

make laws, control federal spending

31

two jobs of the Senate

- approve president's treaties
- confirm presidential appointments

32

one job of the House of Representatives

impeach (bring charges against) a federal official

33

job of the judicial branch

interpret laws and the Constitution

34

Why did James Madison want to pass the Bill of Rights?

He hoped that they would build support for the new government among the people

35

How many amendments were there in the Bill of Rights?

12, but the states only approved 10

36

What did the first 8 amendments in the Bill of Rights do?

protect the rights of individuals against the government

37

What did the 9th amendment in the Bill of Rights do?

says that the people have all the rights not listed

38

What did the 10th amendment in the Bill of Rights do?

says that the states have all the powers not given to the federal government

39

powers specifically given to the federal government in the Constitution

enumerated powers

40

a paper note issued by the government, promising to pay someone back with interest

bond

41

Hamilton asked Congress to create a national ___

bank

42

Eventually, the Bank of the US was created. Congress said that, since a national bank was necessary and proper, it was an ___ power

implied

43

In 1791, Congress angered Western farmers by putting a tax on ___

whiskey

44

In response to the whiskey tax, what did Western farmers do?

rebel

45

How did Washington deal with the Whiskey Rebellion?

sent 15,000 troops and crushed it

46

Why did Washington's response to the Whiskey Rebellion worry some people?

He used American troops against American people

47

right of the Supreme Court to declare a law passed by Congress unconstititutional

judicial review

48

case that created the idea of judicial review

Marbury vs. Madison

49

chief justice of the Supreme Court for 34 years

John Marshall

50

Thomas Jefferson bought __ from Napoleon

Louisiana Territory

51

two effects of Louisiana Purchase

- US doubled its size
- US gained control of whole Mississippi River

52

__ and __ explored the Louisiana Territory

Lewis and Clark

53

causes for War of 1812

- British and French sanctions against US
- impressment

54

British practice of kidnapping and using American sailors as soldiers

impressment

55

law lifting all US trade taxes except those relating to Britain or France

Non-Intercourse Act

56

law temporarily lifting British trade embargoes, aimed at ending impressment

Macon's Bill #2

57

author of "Star-Spangled Banner"

Francis Scott Key

58

last battle of War of 1812, US victory

Battle of New Orleans

59

treaty that ended War of 1812

Treaty of Ghent

60

3 results of War of 1812

- no territory changes
- increased US prestige overseas
- stimulated US patriotism and unity

61

period after War of 1812 during Monroe's presidency, American s felt national loyalty, only one national party

Era of Good Feelings

62

two types of tariffs

protective and revenue

63

tax designed to raise money for government

revenue tariff

64

tax designed to help American manufacturers by taxing imports from other countries

protective tariff

65

protective tariff passed after War of 1816

Tariff of 1816

66

3 ways nationalism was shown after War of 1812

- economic
- judicial
- diplomacy

67

How was economic nationalism shown? (2)

- Second Bank of US
- protective tariffs

68

How was judicial nationalism shown? (1)

- national court (Supreme Court) dominant over state courts

69

How was diplomatic nationalism shown? (2)

- gained Florida from Spain

- Monroe Doctrine

70

Chief Justice of Supreme Court, helped unify nation after war with three famous cases

John Marshall

71

John Marshall's three famous cases

- Gibbons vs. Ogden
- Martin vs Hunter's Lessee
- McCulloch vs Maryland

72

How did Gibbons vs. Ogden turn out? (2)

- government does not have power to allow monopolies

- Congress can control interstate commerce

73

How did Martin vs Hunter's Lessee turn out? (1)

- Supreme Court had power over state courts

74

How did McCulloch vs Maryland turn out? (2)

- Bank of US upheld

- Congress has "implied powers" to pass laws, since they can do anything "necessary and proper"

75

2 things stated by Monroe Doctrine

- declared that America could not be colonized

- other countries should stay out of American affairs

76

three things that contributed to the revolution in American transportation

- National Road
- steamboat
- powerful locomotive

77

major east-west highway that helped trade and transportation

National Road

78

invented the steamboat

Robert Fulton

79

built an engine for America's first powerful locomotive

Robert Cooper

80

two big changes during Industrial Revolution

- switch from hand tools to big machines
- switch from homemade goods to goods made in factories

81

process in which a society goes from agricultural to manufacturing

industrialization

82

occurs when individuals have their own money and can spend it or invest it in new technologies

free enterprise

83

popularized interchangeable parts, creating factory processes

Eli Whitney

84

he opened mills and used machines to mass produce cotton cloth, employed thousands

Lowell

85

king crop of Southern economy

cotton

86

machine that separated cotton balls from seeds

cotton gin

87

they owned larges plantations with 5 or more slaves

planters

88

smaller farmers with 4 or fewer slaves

yeoman farmers

89

plantation system giving slaves a certain number of jobs each day that they had to complete; after that they could spend their time on their own

task system

90

plantation system where slaves work in groups led by a driver

gang system

91

5 parts of slave codes

- slaves could not own property
- could not leave property without permission
- couldn't own guns
- couldn't testify against whites
- couldn't read or write

92

arrangement that prohibited slavery in Louisiana Purchase but allowed it in the south

Missouri Compromise

93

In the election of 1824, __ was accused of getting votes for __ in exchange for a cabinet post

Clay, Adams

94

what party was created during the election of 1824?

democrats