Chs. 8-11 Final exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chs. 8-11 Final exam Deck (89):
1

political meetings where presidential nominees are chosen

caucus

2

one problem with the caucus system

favors well-connected

3

replaced caucuses; delegates met to decide on nominees

national nominating conventions

4

to legally overturn a law

nullify

5

Why did Kentucky and Virginia want to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts?

they believed they were unconstitutional

6

Where did most new immigrants during the early 1800s come from?

Germany and Ireland

7

hostility towards anyone with different language/religion/culture

nativism

8

early 1800s movement to revive Americans' commitment to religion; included revival meetings and encouragement to read Bible

Second Great Awakening

9

big supporter of the Second Great Awakening

Finney

10

two key components of Romanticism

- feeling over reason
- individual above society

11

came out of the religious revival; attitude of being able to improve yourself and the world

spirit of reform

12

reform movements that took place during the early 1800s (5)

- temperance
- prison reform
- education
- women's movement
- gradualism and abolition

13

reform movement to prohibit alcohol sales

temperance

14

reform movement to improve prisons and help prisoners rehabilitate themselves

prison reform

15

reform movement to make government funded schools open to all citizens

education reform

16

1848 meeting that organized the women's movement; declared that men and women are created equal and women should vote

Seneca Falls Convention

17

one of the key organizers of the Seneca Falls Convention

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

18

approach to ending slavery slowly by preventing new slaves from being brought into US and pay slaveholders for their loss of "property"

gradualism

19

idea of immediately ending slavery

abolition

20

founder of the abolitionist movement

William Lloyd Garrison

21

Mexican men who tried to get American settlers in Texas; Spanish word for agents or contractors

empresarios

22

law in which Mexico gave 26 empresarios land in Texas, and empresarios promised to fill it with settlers

National Colonization Act

23

Americans who moved to Texas initially accepted _ citizenship

Mexican

24

military leader of the Americans in Texas

Sam Houston

25

mission where the Americans stayed and fought off Santa Anna's troops for 13 days, giving the rest of the American army time to organize

Alamo

26

leader of the Americans at Alamo

Travis

27

Whig senator who ran against James Polk in 1844; promised to annex Texas and buy California

Henry Clay

28

politician who claimed to want the Oregon Territory but secretly allowed Britain to have some of Vancouver Island

Polk

29

winner of 1844 election

Polk

30

the idea that God gave land to Americans and wanted them to settle West

manifest destiny

31

treaty in which Mexico gave up California, Utah, Nevada, and parts of other states in exchange for money

Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo

32

bill proposing that slavery not be allowed in any lands gained from Mexico (didn't pass)

Wilmot Proviso

33

3 candidates in 1848 election

Lewis Cass (democrat supported pop. sovereignty) , Martin van Buren (opposed slavery), Zachary Taylor (Whig)

34

people went west to find gold

49ers

35

CA wanted to be admitted as __ state

free

36

three things accomplished by Compromise of 1850

- CA admitted as free state
- passed Fugitive Slave Act
- pop. sovereignty in former Mexican lands
- slave trade abolished in DC

37

law requiring citizens to help catch runaway slaves

Fugitive Slave Act

38

passageway taking runaway slaves to the North

underground railroad

39

famous woman who was involved in the underground railroad

Harriet Tubman

40

passageway linking east and west coasts

Transcontinental Railroad

41

$10 million land purchase necessary for building the railroad

Gadsden Purchase

42

bill to allow popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska

Kansas-Nebraska Act

43

compromised repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act

Missouri Compromise

44

party that formed opposed to spreading slavery

Republicans

45

free soiler

someone who supported making all new lands free lands

46

enslaved man who argued that he should be free because his owner took him to free territory

Dred Scott

47

How did the Supreme Court rule in the Dred Scott decision?

- African Americans were not citizens and could not sue in court
- government could not prohibit slavery in the new territories

48

anti-immigrant (nativists) and anti-Catholic party

Know Nothings

49

constitution drafted by a Kansan pro-slavery legislature that legalized slavery in Kansas; voted against

Lecompton Constitution

50

Stephen Douglas’s statement that slavery could be excluded in a territory if people refused to pass the laws needed to regulate and enforce slavery

Freeport Doctrine

51

abolitionist who began a rebellion against slaveholders, seized the federal arsenal at Harpers ferry, put down by Robert E. Lee

John Brown

52

who won the election of 1860

Abraham Lincoln

53

which state was the first to secede?

South Carolina

54

first president of the confederacy

Jefferson Davis

55

three things said in the Confederate Constitution

- each state was independent
- slavery guaranteed
- banned protective tariffs
- six year term

56

three things Lincoln said in his inaugural address

- he would not interfere with slavery where it already existed
- Union could not be dissolved
- seceded states would come back

57

first battle of Civil War

Fort Sumter

58

how did Lincoln prevent Maryland (border state) from seceding?

martial law - military took control and replaced police, suspended some civil rights

59

military leader of Confederacy

Robert E Lee

60

North advantages in Civil War

- better transportation
- telegraph wire
- larger population
- more factories (clothing and iron)
- more money (taxes)

61

North disadvantage in Civil War

factory workers not ready to be soldiers

62

South advantages in Civil War

- good military leaders and soldiers
- lots of crops and food

63

law that required states to use conscription (draft)

militia law

64

states that someone must be charged to go to jail; Lincoln suspended this right temporarily

habeas corpus

65

Why was the Civil War called the first modern war?

new tactics and technology
- better bullets
- faster loading rifles
- trenches and barricades
- move to army in tight rows, then charge with bayonets

66

Southern strategy in war

- choose battles carefully to avoid heavy losses
- defensive war of attrition (force North to use up its resources and negotiate)

67

Northern strategy in war

Anaconda Plan
- block southern ports (naval war)
- force South to run out of resources and surrender

68

major battles of the Civil War in the West

Union led by General Grant
- Shiloh - Union wins
- Chattanooga - Union wins

69

major battles of the Civil War in the East

Union led by General McClellan
- Yorktown - Union wins
- Seven Days Battle - South wins
- Antietam - Union wins

70

Lincoln's decree freeing all enslaved persons still in rebellion after January I, 1863

Emancipation Proclamation

71

Southern economy during Civil War

- transportation system destroyed
- food shortages --> riots

72

Northern economy during Civil War

- booming economy
- women did factory and farm work

73

how did women contribute to the war

nurses on the battlefield

74

famous female nurses during Civil War

Clara Barton and Elizabeth Blackwell

75

what happened in military prisons?

prisoners were usually exchanged, not kept

76

Why did Lincoln stop prisoner exchanges?

Confederacy would not trade blacks --> southern camps became crowded

77

What happened at Vicksburg?

- Grant sieged Vicksburg, forced the south to give up
- cut the south into two parts

78

what battle was the turning point of the war?

Gettysburg

79

What happened at Gettysburg?

- Pickett's Charge: south attack on union troops
- Union fought of south and the south suffered many casualties
- after that, the north stayed on the offensive

80

Lincoln's speech on the battlefield

Gettysburg Address

81

What happened during the fall of Atlanta?

- General Sherman cut off all trains to Atlanta
- souther troops evacuated --> Sherman's march to sea

82

Sherman's march to sea

Sherman marched from Atlanta to ocean, burning everything

83

Lincoln's opponent in 1864

George McClellan

84

McClellan's campaign promise

he would end the war and open negotiations to restore the union

85

amendment that banned slavery

Thirteenth Amendment

86

where did Lee surrender?

Appomattox Courthouse

87

promise that Grant made to Lee

no one would be prosecuted for treason

88

who killed Lincoln?

John Wilkes Booth

89

three things in the aftermath of the Civil War

- strengthened federal government's power over states
- end to slavery
- south socially and economically devastated