What type of joints are facet joints?
What is the purpose of spinal curvature?
To aid posture and balance
Which two curves of the spine are examples of lordosis?
Which two curves of the spine are examples of kyphosis?
Where does disc prolapse most commonly occur?
Lifing a heavy object may cause tear of what part of the intervertebral disc?
Why is MRI not diagnostic for disc pain?
Many people have bulging discs, yet are asymptomatic
What is the tip of the spinal cord called and at what vertebral level is it found?
When does most disc prolapse settle by?
Within 3 months
Nerve root compression can cause what?
Radiculopathy which involves pain down the sensory distribution (dermatome) of the nerve root.
This may also result in muscle weakness and reduced reflexes
Why does spinal stenosis cause radiculopathy?
Osteophytes form and can compress the nerve roots
In spinal stenosis, there may be pain on walking, what is this called?
Where do sensory neurones exit the spinal cord?
At the dorsal root ganglion
Where do motor neurones exit the spinal cord?
Anterior grey horn
Anterior and posterior dorsal root pass through what after exiting the spinal cord?
What is cauda equina syndrome?
It involves pressure on all lumbosacral nerve roots including sacral nerve roots which supply the bladder and bowel
- Bilateral lower motor neurone signs
- Bladder and bowel control lost
- Saddle anaesthesia
- Loss of anal tone
What is a chance fracture?
When a fractured vertebrae causes disruption of the posterior ligaments
This may require surgical stabilisation
What is the treatment for mechanical back pain?
Not usually surgery
- Pain clinic
When would surgery be suggested for sciatica?
When pain does not settle after 3 months
Decompression or a discectomy