Everone has low levels of autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells.
True or false?
In order for autoimmunity to occur, there must be a _________ susceptibility followed by an ___________ ________ or ___________
Initiating event or trigger
What is IPEX syndrome?
Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome
An inherited condition which involves a mutation in the FOXP3 gene
This gene is responsible for regulatory T cells which means autoimmunity is abundant in IPEX syndrome
How can IPEX syndrome treated?
Haematopoeitic stem cell transplant
Use of immunosuppressive drugs
How are hugely diverse B and T cell populations obtained?
T cell receptor alpha and beta chain gene segments are randomly re-arranged creating a huge variety of B and T cells
However, this also means the likelyhood of autoreactivity increases
What are the two tolerance mechanisms which try to counteract autoreactivity?
- Central tolerance - the removal of self-reactive lymphocytes in primary lymphoid tissues
- Peripheral tolerance - inactivation of self-reactive lymphocytes that escape central tolerance (mediated by regulatory T cells)
How do regulatory T cells cause suppression?
Secretion of IL-10 and TGF beta
Which HLA gene is associated with ankylosing spondylitis?
Which HLA gene is associated with rheumatoid arthritis?
Which HLA gene is associated with SLE?
Which HLA gene is associated with multiple sclerosis?
Which HLA gene is associated with idiopathic diabetes mellitus?
Which HLA gene is associated with myasthenia gravis?
What are the three forms of HLA class I?
- HLA - A
- HLA - B
- HLA - C
What are the three forms of HLA class II?
- HLA - DR
- HLA - DQ
- HLA - DP
Genes for HLA are encoded on which chromosome?
What is the significance of having such variety in a population in terms of HLA alleles?
Different alleles can bind different peptides
Hence, some alleles will be more protective or susceptible to certain genetic conditions
What is molecular mimicry?
This is when antibody produced to a foreign antigen can cross-react with self antigen.
This is due to the similar peptide structure of the foreign and self antigen
What are superantigens?
Antigens which can activate lymphocytes outwith the binding sites
What is antigen sequestration?
Release of antigen not normally available for recognition
SLE involves which type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Rheumatoid arthritis involves which type of hypersensitivity reaction?
When immune complexes form in the body, why is complement binding useful?
It aids removal
In SLE, why is the clearance of apoptotic bodies and immune complexes delayed?
A C1Q mutation creating abnormal C2 and C4 which cannot aid in the removal process
A Mac1 mutation which hinders many processes including apoptosis
Anti-dsDNA is associated with which condition?
Anti-Sm is associated with which condition?
Anti-Ro (SSA) and Anti-La (SSB) are associated with which conditions?
(also subacute cutaneous SLE and neonatal lupus syndrome)
Anti-U3-RNP is associated with which condition?
Anti-centromere antibody is associated with which condition?
Anti Scl-70 antibody is associated with which condition?
Anti-Jo-1 antibody is associated with which condition?
Why does rheumatoid arthritis occur?
Infiltration of the synovium by self reactive CD4+ T cells
Secondary involvement of activated B cells and autoantibodies
What is the role of TNF alpha and IL-1 in the disease process of rheumatoid arthritis?
- Stimulates fibroblasts, osteoclasts and chrondrocytes
- Stimulates release of matrix metalloproteinases
What is a rheumatoid factor?
An autoantibody directed against the common (Fc) region of human IgG
Which antibodies are highly apecific for rheumatoid arthritis?
Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ANPA)
These are highly specific to RA, but only postive in around 70% of cases