Connective Tissue Disease Overview Flashcards Preview

The Musculoskeletal System > Connective Tissue Disease Overview > Flashcards

Flashcards in Connective Tissue Disease Overview Deck (26):
1

What is Raynaud's syndrome?

It is vasospasm usually in response to cold weather.

Resultant colour changes occur commonly in the fingers

2

When may anti-phospholipid syndrome be suspected?

  • Young (<50) with occurence of 1 or more thrombosis
  • Foetal death after 10 weeks due to pre-eclampsia or multiple embryonic losses
  • Unexplained thrombocytopenia

3

What is pre-eclampsia?

High blood pressure during pregancy that can cause brain damage.

The high blood pressure may also impair kidney and liver function, cause seizures and result in pulmonary oedema.

It can result in miscarriage and in severe cases mother and foetal death

4

Livedo reticularis is a skin feature of which condition?

Anti-phospholipid syndrome

5

What is the main treatment for anti-phospholipid syndrome?

Lifelong anticoagulation

  • Warfarin
  • Heparin, fragmin and aspirin are options during pregancy

6

Which medication can be given to those with anti-phospholipid syndrome that aids the endothelium?

Hydroxychloroquine

(it reduces IFN alpha)

7

What is Sjogren's disorder?

A chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder causing diminished lacrimal and salivary gland functioning.

This results in dry mucous membranes all over the body but especially dry eyes and mouth

8

Why do people with Sjogren's disorder often have poor dental condition?

Saliva is not produced

Proteolytic enzymes cannot enter the mouth

Bacterial growth is easier

9

Which antibodies are associated with Sjogren's disorder?

Anti-nuclear antibody

Anti-Ro

Anti-La

(Anti-Ro and anti-La are types of anti-RNP)

10

What is Schirmer's test?

A test used to determine the severity of dry eyes.

Filter paper is put beside the eye and if liquid makes it 10mm down the paper in 5 minutes this is normal, otherwise the patient has dry eyes

11

What are punctal plugs?

Plugs insterted into the tear ducts to prevent drainage of fluid

This is a treatment used in people with dry eyes e.g. Sjogren's

12

How can Sjogren's disorder be treated?

  • Artificial tear supplements
  • Ciclosporin eye drops
  • Punctal plugs
  • Saliva supplements
  • Pilocarpine (for dry mouth)
  • Hydroxychloroquine (efficacy is questioned)
  • Immunosupression e.g. methotrexate

13

Systemic sclerosis causes which two main changes?

The autoimmunity causes:

  1. Vascular endothelial changes
  2. Fibrosis

14

Diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis affects which parts of the body?

Proximal to the forearms and includes torso

15

Which is more common in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis?

ILD or pulmonary hypertension?

ILD

(pulmonary hypertension is a common finding in systemic sclerosis)

16

Which antibodies are associated with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis?

  • Anti-topoisomerase
  • Anti-SCL-70
  • Anti-RNA III polymerase

17

In systemic sclerosis which lung condition is common?

Pulmonary hypertension

18

What is the skin distribution like in systemic sclerosis?

Distal to elbows

Does not involve torso

19

Systemic sclerosis is associated with which other multi-system conditions?

  • Calcinosis
  • Raynaud's (90% of patients have this)
  • Oesophageal dysmotility
  • Sclerodactyly
  • Telangiectasia
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

20

Which antibodies are associated with systemic sclerosis?

Anti-centromere antibody

Anti-SCL-70

21

How can Raynaud's syndrome be treated?

Calcium channel blockers

Phosphodiestase enzyme inhibitors

22

If lung disease is present with systemic sclerosis, what is the treatment?

Immunosuppressants

23

Pulmonary hypertension associated with systemic sclerosis can be treated in what way?

Calcium channel blockers

Endothelin receptor antagonists

Prostacyclin

24

Reflux associated with systemic sclerosis can be treated with what?

Protein pump inhibitors

H2 receptor antagonists

25

Mixed connective tissue disease is associated with which antibody?

Anti-RNP

26

Polymyositis is associated with which antibody?

Anti-Jo-1

(and others)

Decks in The Musculoskeletal System Class (58):