Spinal Fractures and Cord Injuries Flashcards Preview

The Musculoskeletal System > Spinal Fractures and Cord Injuries > Flashcards

Flashcards in Spinal Fractures and Cord Injuries Deck (32):
1

How can a potential C-spine injury be radiologically cleared?

  1. X-ray (AP, lateral and potentially also odontoid peg open mouth view)
  2. CT

2

High C spine fractures or dislocations may be fatal especially when above whih vertebral level?

C3

3

How can most stable C-spine injuries be treated?

Firm cervical collar

4

Excluding surgery, how can unstable C-spine injuries be treated?

Halo vest (for immobilisation)

 

5

In the elderly with osteoporosis, which type of fractures commonly occur in the spine?

Insufficiency wedge fractures

6

What is the term given to the type of spinal fracture which commonly occurs in the thoracic region of younger people involved in a high energy flexion-distraction injury?

Chance fractures

7

Chance fractures involve failure of the ____________ ligaments in the spine

Posterior

8

What are the two main indications for surgery in the thoracolumbar spine?

  1. Neurological deficit
  2. Unstable injury

9

Which types of surgery can be utilised in a thoracolumbar spinal fracture?

  1. Pedicle screws and rods
  2. Spinal fusion
  3. Spinal decompression

10

When would spinal decompression be most utilised?

Neurological deficit

11

What types of secondary damage affect the spinal cord after trauma?

  1. Vascular disruption
  2. Oedema
  3. Hypotension
  4. Hypoxia
  5. Inflammatory response

12

What is spinal shock?

Sensation, motor function and reflexes lost below level of injury

13

Does spinal shock ever resolve?

Yes

(after 24 hours usually)

14

Which reflex is absent in spinal shock?

Bulbocavernous reflex

15

What does the bulbocavernous reflex involve?

Contraction of the anal sphincter

16

How is neurogenic shock treated?

IV fluid therapy

17

What is complete spinal cord injury?

No sensory or motor function below injury level

18

What is incomplete spinal cord injury?

Some neurological function remains below level of trauma

19

If there is loss of motor function at T1 to T12, what may be essential for the survival of a patient?

Ventilatory support

20

What is the most common injury pattern to the spine?

Central cord syndrome

21

How does central cord syndrome occur?

Hyperextension injury in a cervical spine with OA

22

What is the most common area to be paralysed with central cord syndrome?

Arms

23

Why are the arms affected more than the legs in central cord syndrome?

Corticospinal motor tracts of the upper limb are more central in the cord

24

In anterior cord syndrome which neurological deficits occur?

  1. Motor function
  2. Coarse touch
  3. Pain
  4. Temperature sensation

25

In anterior cord syndrome, which neurological aspects are preserved?

  1. Proprioception
  2. Vibration sense
  3. Light touch

26

Posterior cord syndrome is ________

Rare

27

Posterior cord syndrome involves a loss of ________ column function

Dorsal

28

If there is dorsal column damage in the spinal cord, which neurological aspects are impacted?

  1. Proprioception
  2. Vibration sense
  3. Light touch

29

What is Brown-Séquard syndrome

Damage to one half of the spinal cord

30

Brown-Séquard syndrome usually results from what?

Hemisection of the spinal cord from penetrating injury

31

What occurs in Brown-Séquard syndrome?

  1. Paralysis of the ipsilateral side
  2. Loss of dorsal column function
  3. Contralateral loss of pain, coarse touch and temperature sensation

32

Why is there contralateral loss of pain, coarse touch and temperature sensation in Brown-Séquard syndrome?

Nerve fibres of spinothalmic tracts cross to the contrelateral side 1-2 levels above their entry into the cord

(nerve fibres of of other tracts cross higher in the medulla)

Decks in The Musculoskeletal System Class (58):