At what age is an infant expected to manage stairs independently?
At what age is an infant expected to sit alone/crawl?
At what age is an infant expected to jump?
At what age is an infant expected to understand 200 words and learn around 10 per day?
At what age is an infant expected to walk?
At what age is an infant expected to be potty trained?
At what age is an infant expected to eat with fingers or use a spoon?
At what age is an infant expected to stand?
At what age is an infant expected to speak a few words?
At what age is an infant expected to stack blocks?
At what age is an infant expected to lose primitive reflexes e.g. grasp reflex?
At what age is an infant expected to gain head control?
At birth children have ______ knees which become __________ aligned at around __ months progressing to __ __ __ ___________ at age _ and then gradually regress to the physiologic ______ of _ at age _-_
At birth children have varus knees which become neutrally aligned at around 14 months progressing to 10-15º valgus at age 3 and then gradually regress to the physiologic valgus of 6º at age 7-9
What is considered pathological varus or valgum?
Alignment outwith the normal range by +/-6º
What is Blount's disease?
A growth disorderof the medial proximal tibial physis which causes marked and persisting varus deformity
How can Blount's disease be treated?
Surgical correction with osteotomy
(growth plate restriction with a small plate and screws on the medial side can be used in adolescence)
As well as Blount's disease, what are some other pathological causes of genu verum?
- Traumatic physeal injury
- Skeletal dysplasia
Persistent bow legs are at risk of which condition?
OA (on the medial compartment)
What are some causes of pathological genu valgum?
Excessive genu valgum can be treated in which ways?
- Growth plate manipulation surgery (in adolescence)
What are three major causes of intoeing?
- Femoral neck anteversion
- Internal tibial torsion
- Forefoot adduction
How can it be determined if a child has flexible or fixed flat footedness?
In flexible flat feet, the flattened medial arch will form with dorsiflexion of the great toe, this does not happen with the fixed variant
What are the common causes for flexible flat footedness?
- Ligamentous laxity
In children flexible flat footedness is a _________ variant
(in adults this can be related to tibialis posterior dysfunction)
What does fixed flat footedness suggest?
There is an underlying bone abnormality
(e.g. tarsal coalition)
In which instances does fixed flat footedness present?
- Tarsal coalition (or other underlying bone abnormality)
- Underlying inflammatory disorder
- Neurological disorder
Minor overlapping and curling of toes is ________
Which toe is most commonyl affected by curly toes?
Fifth toe (little toe)
What is the treatment for curly toes?