Shoulder Fractures and Dislocations Flashcards Preview

The Musculoskeletal System > Shoulder Fractures and Dislocations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Shoulder Fractures and Dislocations Deck (21):
1

Proximal humeral fractures most commonly occur in which scenarios?

  1. Fall onto outstretched hand
  2. Fall directly onto shoulder

2

What is the most common pattern of humeral neck fracture?

Surgical neck

3

What is the main reason the humeral shaft is displaced in proximal humeral fractures?

Pull of the pectoralis major

4

Persistantly displaced humeral neck fractures are usually treated in which way?

Internal fixation

(plate, screws, wires or intra-medullary nail)

5

What are some potentially negative outcomes of internal fixation of proximal humeral shaft fractures in the older patient?

  1. Stiffness
  2. Chronic pain
  3. Failure of fixation

6

When would a shoulder replacement be considered in a proximal humeral fracture?

If there is a 3 or 4 part comminuted humal fracture

(the humeral head may undergo AVN otherwise)

7

Head splitting fractures of the humerus usually require what type of treatment?

Shoulder replacement

(unless the patient is young with very good bone quality)

8

Anterior shoulder dislocation is much _____ __________ than posterior shoulder dislocation

Anterior shoulder dislocation is much more common than posterior shoulder dislocation

9

Why may anterior shoulder dislocations occur?

  1. Excessive external rotational force
  2. Fall onto back of shoulder

10

Anterior shoulder dislocations usually result in detachment of the anterior glenoid labrum and capsule.

What is this called?

Bankart lesion

11

What happens when the posterior humeral head impacts the naterior glenoid?

Hill-Sachs lesion

12

What is a Hill-Sachs lesion?

Impactation fracture of posterior humeral head

13

Which nerve is particularly at risk during an anterior shoulder dislocation?

Axillary nerve

14

What is the principle sign of axillary nerve damage?

Loss of sensation in the regimental badge area

15

Shoulder dislocation occurs commonly alongside which two types of fracture?

  1. Fracture of surgical neck of humerus
  2. Fracture of greater tuberosity of humerus

16

What is the mainstay of treatment for shoulder dislocations?

  1. Closed reductuion under anaesthetic
  2. Sling for 2-3 weeks

17

What causes a posterior shoulder dislocation?

Posterior force on adducted and internally rotated arm

18

What is the main X-ray finding for a posterior shoulder dislocation?

Light bulb sign

 

19

What happens in an AC joint subluxation?

The AC ligaments are ruptured

20

What happens in AC joint dislocation?

  1. Coracoclavicular ligaments (conoid and trapezoid) are ruptured
  2. AC ligaments are ruptured

21

How can AC joint injuries be treated?

  1. Sling for a few weeks
  2. Physio
  3. Surgery for chronic pain (coracoclavicular ligaments are reconstructed)

(surgery may be attempted sooner for young athletes)

Decks in The Musculoskeletal System Class (58):