Shoulder Fractures and Dislocations Flashcards Preview

The Musculoskeletal System > Shoulder Fractures and Dislocations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Shoulder Fractures and Dislocations Deck (21):

Proximal humeral fractures most commonly occur in which scenarios?

  1. Fall onto outstretched hand
  2. Fall directly onto shoulder


What is the most common pattern of humeral neck fracture?

Surgical neck


What is the main reason the humeral shaft is displaced in proximal humeral fractures?

Pull of the pectoralis major


Persistantly displaced humeral neck fractures are usually treated in which way?

Internal fixation

(plate, screws, wires or intra-medullary nail)


What are some potentially negative outcomes of internal fixation of proximal humeral shaft fractures in the older patient?

  1. Stiffness
  2. Chronic pain
  3. Failure of fixation


When would a shoulder replacement be considered in a proximal humeral fracture?

If there is a 3 or 4 part comminuted humal fracture

(the humeral head may undergo AVN otherwise)


Head splitting fractures of the humerus usually require what type of treatment?

Shoulder replacement

(unless the patient is young with very good bone quality)


Anterior shoulder dislocation is much _____ __________ than posterior shoulder dislocation

Anterior shoulder dislocation is much more common than posterior shoulder dislocation


Why may anterior shoulder dislocations occur?

  1. Excessive external rotational force
  2. Fall onto back of shoulder


Anterior shoulder dislocations usually result in detachment of the anterior glenoid labrum and capsule.

What is this called?

Bankart lesion


What happens when the posterior humeral head impacts the naterior glenoid?

Hill-Sachs lesion


What is a Hill-Sachs lesion?

Impactation fracture of posterior humeral head


Which nerve is particularly at risk during an anterior shoulder dislocation?

Axillary nerve


What is the principle sign of axillary nerve damage?

Loss of sensation in the regimental badge area


Shoulder dislocation occurs commonly alongside which two types of fracture?

  1. Fracture of surgical neck of humerus
  2. Fracture of greater tuberosity of humerus


What is the mainstay of treatment for shoulder dislocations?

  1. Closed reductuion under anaesthetic
  2. Sling for 2-3 weeks


What causes a posterior shoulder dislocation?

Posterior force on adducted and internally rotated arm


What is the main X-ray finding for a posterior shoulder dislocation?

Light bulb sign



What happens in an AC joint subluxation?

The AC ligaments are ruptured


What happens in AC joint dislocation?

  1. Coracoclavicular ligaments (conoid and trapezoid) are ruptured
  2. AC ligaments are ruptured


How can AC joint injuries be treated?

  1. Sling for a few weeks
  2. Physio
  3. Surgery for chronic pain (coracoclavicular ligaments are reconstructed)

(surgery may be attempted sooner for young athletes)

Decks in The Musculoskeletal System Class (58):