Clinical aspects of diabetes Flashcards Preview

MD4001 Pathology > Clinical aspects of diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical aspects of diabetes Deck (20):
1

What is MODY

autosomal dominant inherited diabetes

maturity onset diabetes of the young

2

what is the clinical presentation of DM1

thirst
polyuria
weight loss
blurred vision
fatigue
nausea, vomiting
DKA, HONK

3

what should you remember to educate diabetics on

diet
hypoglyceamia
sick day rules
monitoring
driving
alcohol
smoking
insulin card
pregnancy and contraception
complications (acute/chronic)

4

what should preprandial sugars be

4-7 mmol/L

5

what are the clinical presentations of DM2

thirst, polyuria
malaise
fatigue
infections
candidiasis
blurred vision
complications
incidental finding

6

name some diabeted drugs

sulphonylureas
biguanides
alpha glucosidase inhibitors
thiazolidinediones
GLP1 agonists
DPP IV inhibitors
insulin

7

what class of drug is metformin

biguanide

8

what class of drug are chlorpropamide, glipizide, gliclazide

sulphonylureas

9

what class of drug is acarbose

alpha glucosidase inhibitor

10

what class of drug are troglitazone, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone

thiazolidinediones

11

what class of drug is Exanitide

GLP1 agonist

12

what are the symptoms of DKA

dehydration
tachycardia
hypotension
reduced consciousness
Kussmaul's respiration
acetone
abdo pain
vomiting

13

describe ketone body metabolism

muscle is broken down into amino acids which is converted in the liver to ketone bodies

adipose tissue is broken down to free fatty acids which are converted to ketones in the liver

14

what is the treatment for DKA

Insulin 6U / hr

saline or dextrose

careful monitoring of potassium

15

what are the symptoms of hypoglycemia

adrenergic symptoms

neuroglycopaenic
dizziness, confusion, sleepiness, coma, seizure

16

what value is hypoglycaemia

blood glucose <2.2 mmol/L

(four is the floor)

17

what are the features of HONK

elderly patients
often undiagnosed
intercurrent disease e.g. chest infection or MI

18

what is metformin associated lactic acidosis

high mortality rate but rare

19

what are the stages of nephropathy

hyperfiltration
microalbuminuria
overt nephropathy
chronic renal failure

20

describe the screening of nephropathy

albustix screening
test for albumin and creatinine

manage blood pressure and lipids
good glycemic control
diet