Infections of the sensory system Flashcards Preview

MD4001 Pathology > Infections of the sensory system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infections of the sensory system Deck (63):
1

what defence mechanisms protect the eye

eyelids
lacrimal system
conjunctivae
cornea
blood-ocular barrier

2

what bacteria commonly cause conjunctivitis

haemophilus influenza
strep pneumonia
Moraxella spp

3

what bacteria commonly cause neonatal conjunctivitis

– Neisseria gonorrhoeae
– Escherichia coli
– Staphylococcus aureus
– Haemophilus influenza
– Chlamydia trachomatis

4

what bacteria commonly cause hca conjunctivitis

pseudomonas aeruginosa

5

what are the features of bacterial conjunctivitis

hyperaemic red conjunctivae
mucopurulent discharge

6

how can bacterial conjunctivitis be diagnosed

– Conjunctival swabs
– Corneal scrapings
– Culture & NAAT

7

what is the treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis

– Fusidic acid
– Tetracycline
– Chloramphenicol

8

what type of conjunctivitis does adenovirus cause

purulent conjunctivitis


enlargement of ipsilateral periauricular lymph node
corneal involvement
punctate keratitis
subepithelial inflammatory infiltration

9

where on the face does shingles (varicella zoster) normally infect

V1 dermatome

10

what are the features of V1 dermatome shingles

skin lesions on one side of the forehead
anterior uveitis
ocular perforation
retinal involvement

11

what can be used to treat shingles

aciclovir
topical steroids if severe

vaccine for prevention

12

what are the features of shingles

may be chronic (25%)
very painful (post herpetic neuralgia)

13

what virus is the most common infectious cause of blindness in the developed world

herpes simplex

14

what are the features of herpes simplex infection of the eye

– Ulcerative blepharitis
– Follicular conjunctivitis
– Regional lymphadenopathy
– Corneal involvement – not unusual
-inflammation in deeper tissue
-keratitis
-corneal oedema
-opacity

15

what is a dendritic ulcer

marker of HSV infection
seen on the eye when UV light is shone on

16

what is onchocerciasis

river blindness

onchocerca volvulus
black fly transmission

17

what regions is onchocerciasis found

W Africa, S America, C America

18

how can river blindness be treated

invermectin and doxycycline

19

what organism causes trachomatis (chronic keratoconjunctivitis)

chlamydia trachomatis

20

what are the features of trachomatis

lacrimation
mucopurulent discharge
conjunctival involvement
follicular hypertrophy

21

how is trachomatis treated

azithromycin

22

what is the plan for eradicating trachomatis by 2020

surgery for inturned eyelids

antibiotics

facial cleaning

environmental change

23

what are the ocular manifestations of AIDS

cotton wool spots
infarction of retinal nerve fibre layer
cytomegalovirus infection

24

how can cytomegalovirus be treated

ganciclovir

25

what causes endopthalmitis

ocular operation
trauma
inoculation of foreign body
systemic infection

26

what is endophalmitis

inflammation of the internal coats of the eye
can cause blindness

27

how can endophthalmitis be treated

vitrectomy and antibiotics

28

what are the host defences of the respiratory tract

saliva
mucus
cilia
nasal secretions
antimicrobial peptides

29

what are the common causes of cold

rhinoviruses
coronaviruses
coxsackie

30

what are the clinical features of cold

tiredness, pyrexia, malaise, sore throat

may have a secondary bacterial infection in minority

31

what causes acute pharyngitis and tonilitis

Epstein barr
cytomegalovirus

strep pyogenes

32

what are the features of cytomegalovirus infection

usually asymptomatic or mild

may reactivate during compromised immunity

33

how is cytomegalovirus treated

ganciclovir
foscarnet

34

where does EBV replicate (glandular fever)

B lymphocytes
saliva transmission

35

what age is EBV commonly contracted

1-6 yrs

14-20 yes

36

what are the features of EBV

fever
headache
malaise
sore throat
anorexia
palatal petechiae (mini haemorrhages in the palate)
lymphadenopathy
splenomegaly
mild hepatitis

37

what is the treatment for glandular fever

supportive


avoid sports/ heavy lifting

38

what are the complications of EBV

burkitt's lymphoma
nasopharyngeal carcinoma
guillain barre

39

what causes tonsilitis

strep pyogenes

40

what are the features of tonsillitis

fever
pain
tonsilar enlargement
tonsilar lymphadenopathy


penicillin treatment

41

What causes scarlet fever

caused by erythrogenic toxin from S pyogenes

42

what causes a peritonsillar abscess

untreated tonsillitis

43

what are the complications of tonsillitis/ strep pyogenes

scarlet fever
peritonisilar abscess
otitis media
sinusitis
rheumatic heart disease
glomerulonephritis

44

what is parotitis

caused by mumps virus

45

what are the features of parotitis

fever
malaise
headach
anorexia
trismus
pain and swelling of the parotids

46

what is trismus

tightening of the jaw causing an inability to open the mouth

47

how is parotitis treated

mouth care
nutritional
analgesia

48

how is parotitis prevented

immunisation
MMR

49

what are the complications of parotitis

CNS involvement
epididymoorchitis

50

what causes diphtheria

corynebacterium diptheriae

51

what are the features of diphtheria

usually childhood disease

colonises pharynx, larynx and nose

aerosol transmission

sore throat
fever
lymphadenopathy
oedema of anterior cervical tissue (bull neck)

52

how is diphtheria diagnosed

anti toxin therapy
antibiotics
isolation

53

how can diphtheria be treated

immunisation
booster doses when travelling

54

what viruses can cause laryngitis and tracheitis

parainfluenza
RSV
Influenza
adeno

55

what are the features of laryngitis and tracheitis

hoarseness and retrosternal pain

stridor (croup)

56

what are the features of otitis and sinusitis

invasion of air spaces associated with URT

Middle ear, outer ear, sinuses

blockage of eustacian tubes
mucosal swelling

57

what causes otitis and sinusitis

RSV
mumps,
strep pneumonia
haemophilis influenza
bacteroids fragilis

58

who is otitis media most common in

infants and small children

59

what causes otitis media

RSV
s pneumonia
and H influenzae

60

what are the clinical features of otitis media

fever
diarrhoea and vomiting
bulging ear drum
glue ear (fluid in middle ear)

>chronic suppurative otitis media

hearing difficulties and delayed learning

61

how is otitis externa treated

antibiotic ear drops (polymyxin)

62

what are the features of acute sinusitis

facial pain
localised tenderness

63

how is acute sinusitis treated

ampicillin, amoxicillin, oral cephalosporins