Stroke guided study Flashcards Preview

MD4001 Pathology > Stroke guided study > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stroke guided study Deck (13):

list some of the impacts of stroke

150,000 per year
67,000 deaths per year
greater disability impact than any other disease
£2.8 billion cost to the NHS


what are the features of haemorrhagic stroke

higher mortality rate than ischaemic infarctions
patients are usually more ill


what are some common symptoms of haemorrhagic stroke

headache, altered mental status, seizures, nausea, vomiting, hypertension


describe the appearance of a haemorrhagic stroke on a CT

blood is bright white, distortion of the brain, dark grey halo around the bleed which is oedema


what is the treatment for a haemorrhagic stroke

supportive only


what is the common cause of thrombotic strokes

rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque in the intracranial arteries


what is the usual cause of an emboli stroke

usually originate from a thrombus in the heart or break off from atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries, lodging in and occluding intracranial arteries.


describe the ischaemic cascade

loss of glucose and oxygen delivery to neurons
cessation of the normal electrophysiological function of the cells.
The resultant neuronal and glial injury produces oedema


describe the presentation of an anterior cerebral artery stroke

occlusions primarily affect frontal lobe function and can result in disinhibition and speech perseveration, producing primitive reflexes (eg, grasping, sucking reflexes),
altered mental status, impaired judgment, contralateral weakness (greater in legs than arms), contralateral cortical sensory deficits gait apraxia,
urinary incontinence.
This is the rarest type of stroke


describe the presentation of a Middle cerebral artery occlusion

contralateral hemiparesis
contralateral hyperaesthesia,
ipsilateral hemianopia
gaze preference toward the side of the lesion
weakness of the arm and face is usually worse than that of the lower limb

the most common type of stroke


what is the most common type of stroke

middle cerebral artery occlusion


describe the presentation of a posterior cerebral artery stroke

vision and thought
contralateral homonymous hemianopia
cortical blindness (occipital lobe disorder)
visual agnosia (parietal lobe disorder)
altered mental status
impaired memory


what is the penumbra

potentially salvageable area around the core of the ischaemia
reduced blood supply