Neurodegenerative disorders Flashcards Preview

MD4001 Pathology > Neurodegenerative disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurodegenerative disorders Deck (12):
1

what factors can contribute to neurodegeneration

toxins
protein handling disorder
lack of growth factors
oxidative stress
excitotoxicity
ionic dysequilibrium
mitochondrial dysfunction
activation of cell death pathways
immune attack

2

what genes are associated with alziemers

amyloid precursor protein gene
presenilin 1 and 2

3

what genes are involved in ALS

• Superoxide Dismutase 1
• TAR DNA Binding
Protein (TDP-43)
• Fused in Sarcoma (FUS)
• C9orf72 (most
common)

4

What is progressive muscular atrophy

LMN disease

5

what is primary lateral sclerosis

UMN disease

6

what is riluzole used to treat

ALS

7

what is the MOA of riluzole

blocks TTX sodium channels
reduces glutamate release
increases astrocyte glutamate activity
enhances GABA activity
enhances BNDF action

8

what are neurofibrillary tangles

composed of tau proteins which is hyperphosphorylated and creates neurofibrillary tangles

9

what are amyloid plaques

extracellular proteinaceous deposits

largely composed of Ab peptides

10

what are the neurochemical changes in neurodegenerative disorders

loss of aCh
loss of GABA
serotonin input from dorsal raphe nuclei reduced
reduced noradrenalin from locus ceruleus

11

how can dementia be treated

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; donepezil,
galantamine, rivastigmine used in mild to moderate
dementia.

NMDA receptor antagonists e.g. memantine used in
moderate to severe DAT.

12

what is the ADAS cog

alzeimers disease assesment scale

measure of cognitive performance