Pathology of the adrenal glands Flashcards Preview

MD4001 Pathology > Pathology of the adrenal glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology of the adrenal glands Deck (20):
1

what disease is excessive secretion of cortisone

cushing's

2

what are the features of cushings

excessive cortisone secretion
muscle wasting
fat around waist
abnormal collagen
hypertension
osteoporosis
impaired glucose tolerance
hirsutism
depression and psychosis
emotional disturbance
enlarged sella turcica
moon face
cardiac hypertrophy
buffalo hump
obesity
think, wrinkled skin
abdominal striae
amenorrhea
purpura
skin ulcers, poor wound healing

3

what causes cushing's

pituitary adenoma producing ACTH > adrenal hyperplasia

primary adrenal neoplasm (benign or malignant)

ectopic ACTH or related peptides (paraneoplastic syndrome)

iatrogenic adrenal hypertrophy

4

what cancers can cause paraneoplastic syndrome with increased ACTH

carcinoid lung tumour
small cell carcinoma of lung

5

What is Conn's disease

primary hyperaldosteronism

6

what are the symptoms of Conn's disease

hypokalaemia
muscle weakness and cramps
metabolic alkalosis
high aldosterone
low renin

7

what is aldosterone

hormone produced in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex

regulates sodium, potassium and blood pressure

8

what causes Conn's disease

adrenal adenoma
or idiopathic bilateral hyperplasia of ZG

9

what is congenital adrenal hyperplasia

uncommon

hydroxylase deficiency- genetic

causes sex steroid excess or deficiency and may cause intersex conditions

10

where can metastases in the adrenal glands metastasize from

lung
breast
kidney
colon
melanoma
lymphoma

11

describe adrenal adenomas

may be subclinical
low malignant potential

12

what are the features of adrenal carcinomas

rare
poor prognosis
secretes sex steroids

13

what is a pheochromocytoma

chromaffin cell tumour

intermittent production of catecholamines

•Hypertension
•Sweating
•collapse
•Glycosuria

may be part of MEN
may be familial
spectrum of benign to malignant

14

what is a neuroblastoma

very rare
found in young children

develops from neuroblasts

15

what can cause adrenal hypofunction

meningococcal septicaemia
Addison's disease
amyloid, TB, mets

16

what are the features of Addisons

lethargy
weakness
anorexia
pigmentation of skin
low mood
weight loss
fainting
cramps

17

what type of diabetes is a hyperosmolar state more common in

type 2

18

what are other types of diabetes

pancreatitis
cystic fibrosis
tumour

19

what is MEN1 (wermer's syndrome)

neoplastic lesions in pituitary, parathyroid gland and pancreas

20

where might you find tumours in MEN2

thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenals
medullary thyroid carcinoma