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Flashcards in clinical case for cardiac Deck (15)
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heart failure is a progressive clinical syndrome that can result from any abnormality in cardiac pump function, what 2 functions are important?

1. impaired ventricular filling
2. impaired ventricular systolic function
--> result in impaired in cardiac


what is the numerical def of heart failure?

reduced ejection fraction less than 40%


3 main goals of heart failure management?

1. treat the underlying risk factors
2. slow progression of heart failure
3. prolong survival and quality of life


what is stage A?

1. at high risk for heart failure but without risk of structural heart dz or symptoms of heart failure
2. hypertension, atherosclerotic dz, diabetes


what drugs can be used for stage A?

ACEI, ARB, thiazide


how is stage B diff from stage A?

asymptomatic valvular disease


drug of choices for stage B?

beta blockers, ACEI


what is stage C?

1. structural heart dz with prior or current symptoms of heart failure
2. known structural heart dz and symptoms of heart failure


what are the drug of choices for stage C?

diuretics, ACEI, beta blockers, aldosterone antagonist, hydralazine/nitrate


what is stage D?

1. refractory heart failure requiring specialized intervention plus usual therapy
2. marked symptoms at rest despite maximum therapy. Recurrent hospitalization and unsafe discharge


what is ADHF?

acute decompensated heart failure


what are the 4 major drugs for ADHF?

1. diuretics (reduce preload)
2. inotropes (increase contractility)
3. vasodilators (reduce both preload and afterload)
4. natriuretic peptide


what are the 3 diuretics used for ADHF to reduce preload?

1. furosemide
2. bumetanide
3. torsemide


what are the 2 inotropes that can be used for ADHF to increase contractility?

1. dobutamine
2. milrinone


what are the vasodilators and natriuretic peptide that can be used for ADHF to reduce both preload and afterload?

1. nitroglycerin
2. nitroprusside
3. nesiritide